Metabolic consequences of obesity and type 2 diabetes: balancing genes and environment for personalized care

1 day 7 hours ago
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity has risen dramatically for decades and is expected to rise further, secondary to the growing aging, sedentary population. The strain on global health care is projected to be colossal. This review explores the latest work and emerging ideas related to genetic and environmental factors influencing metabolism. Translational research and clinical applications, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, are highlighted. Looking forward, strategies to...
Nicolas J Pillon

Role of the DNAJ/HSP40 family in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

1 day 7 hours ago
Insulin resistance (IR) underpins a wide range of metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. IR is characterized by a marked reduction in the magnitude and/or delayed onset of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal. This condition is due to defects in one or several intracellular intermediates of the insulin signaling cascade, ranging from insulin receptor substrate (IRS) inactivation to reduced glucose phosphorylation and oxidation....
Abdoulaye Diane

Astrocyte dystrophy in ageing brain parallels impaired synaptic plasticity

1 day 7 hours ago
Little is known about age-dependent changes in structure and function of astrocytes and of the impact of these on the cognitive decline in the senescent brain. The prevalent view on the age-dependent increase in reactive astrogliosis and astrocytic hypertrophy requires scrutiny and detailed analysis. Using two-photon microscopy in conjunction with 3D reconstruction, Sholl and volume fraction analysis, we demonstrate a significant reduction in the number and the length of astrocytic processes, in...
Alexander Popov

Comment on "Increased growing-season productivity drives earlier autumn leaf senescence in temperate trees"

1 day 7 hours ago
Zani et al (Research Articles, 27 November 2020, p. 1066) propose that enhancement of deciduous tree photosynthesis in a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere will advance autumn leaf senescence. This premise is not supported by consistent observations from free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiments. In most FACE experiments, leaf senescence or abscission was not altered or was delayed in trees exposed to elevated CO(2).
Richard J Norby

Response to Comment on "Increased growing-season productivity drives earlier autumn leaf senescence in temperate trees"

1 day 7 hours ago
Our study showed that increases in seasonal productivity drive earlier autumn senescence of temperate trees. Norby argues that this finding is contradicted by observations from free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiments, where elevated CO(2) has been found to delay senescence in some cases. We provide a detailed answer showing that the results from FACE studies are in agreement with our conclusions.
Deborah Zani

The ketogenic diet preserves skeletal muscle with aging in mice

1 day 7 hours ago
The causes of the decline in skeletal muscle mass and function with age, known as sarcopenia, are poorly understood. Nutrition (calorie restriction) interventions impact many cellular processes and increase lifespan and preserve muscle mass and function with age. As we previously observed an increase in life span and muscle function in aging mice on a ketogenic diet (KD), we aimed to investigate the effect of a KD on the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass with age and the potential molecular...
Marita A Wallace

Functional genomic analyses highlight a shift in Gpr17-regulated cellular processes in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and underlying myelin dysregulation in the aged mouse cerebrum

1 day 7 hours ago
Brain ageing is characterised by a decline in neuronal function and associated cognitive deficits. There is increasing evidence that myelin disruption is an important factor that contributes to the age-related loss of brain plasticity and repair responses. In the brain, myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes, which are generated throughout life by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Currently, a leading hypothesis points to ageing as a major reason for the ultimate breakdown of...
Andrea D Rivera

Alzheimer's disease

2 days 7 hours ago
In this Seminar, we highlight the main developments in the field of Alzheimer's disease. The most recent data indicate that, by 2050, the prevalence of dementia will double in Europe and triple worldwide, and that estimate is 3 times higher when based on a biological (rather than clinical) definition of Alzheimer's disease. The earliest phase of Alzheimer's disease (cellular phase) happens in parallel with accumulating amyloid β, inducing the spread of tau pathology. The risk of Alzheimer's...
Philip Scheltens

Reduced insulin/IGF1 signaling prevents immune aging via ZIP-10/bZIP-mediated feedforward loop

2 days 7 hours ago
A hallmark of aging is immunosenescence, a decline in immune functions, which appeared to be inevitable in living organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we show that genetic inhibition of the DAF-2/insulin/IGF-1 receptor drastically enhances immunocompetence in old age in C. elegans. We demonstrate that longevity-promoting DAF-16/FOXO and heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF-1) increase immunocompetence in old daf-2(-) animals. In contrast, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1...
Yujin Lee

<em>Mayday</em> sustains trans-synaptic BMP signaling required for synaptic maintenance with age

2 days 7 hours ago
Maintaining synaptic structure and function over time is vital for overall nervous system function and survival. The processes that underly synaptic development are well understood. However, the mechanisms responsible for sustaining synapses throughout the lifespan of an organism are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a previously uncharacterized gene, CG31475, regulates synaptic maintenance in adult Drosophila NMJs. We named CG31475 mayday due to the progressive loss of flight ability...
Jessica M Sidisky

Fine-tuning p53 activity by modulating the interaction between eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and RNA-binding protein RBM38

2 days 7 hours ago
p53 is critical for tumor suppression but also elicits detrimental effects when aberrantly overexpressed. Thus, multiple regulators, including RNA-binding protein RBM38, are found to tightly control p53 expression. Interestingly, RBM38 is unique in that it can either suppress or enhance p53 mRNA translation via altered interaction with eIF4E potentially mediated by serine-195 (S195) in RBM38. Thus, multiple RBM38/eIF4E knock-in (KI) cell lines were generated to investigate the significance of...
Wenqiang Sun