Aging, Lifespan & Longevity

TORC1 signaling regulates cytoplasmic pH through Sir2 in yeast.

7 hours 12 minutes ago

TORC1 signaling regulates cytoplasmic pH through Sir2 in yeast.

Aging Cell. 2020 May 25;:e13151

Authors: Devare MN, Kim YH, Jung J, Kang WK, Kwon KS, Kim JY

Abstract
Glucose controls the phosphorylation of silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), a NAD+ -dependent protein deacetylase, which regulates the expression of the ATP-dependent proton pump Pma1 and replicative lifespan (RLS) in yeast. TORC1 signaling, which is a central regulator of cell growth and lifespan, is regulated by glucose as well as nitrogen sources. In this study, we demonstrate that TORC1 signaling controls Sir2 phosphorylation through casein kinase 2 (CK2) to regulate PMA1 expression and cytoplasmic pH (pHc) in yeast. Inhibition of TORC1 signaling by either TOR1 deletion or rapamycin treatment decreased PMA1 expression, pHc, and vacuolar pH, whereas activation of TORC1 signaling by expressing constitutively active GTR1 (GTR1Q65L) resulted in the opposite phenotypes. Deletion of SIR2 or expression of a phospho-mutant form of SIR2 increased PMA1 expression, pHc, and vacuolar pH in the tor1Δ mutant, suggesting a functional interaction between Sir2 and TORC1 signaling. Furthermore, deletion of TOR1 or KNS1 encoding a LAMMER kinase decreased the phosphorylation level of Sir2, suggesting that TORC1 signaling controls Sir2 phosphorylation. It was also found that Sit4, a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-like phosphatase, and Kns1 are required for TORC1 signaling to regulate PMA1 expression and that TORC1 signaling and the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway converge on CK2 to regulate PMA1 expression through Sir2. Taken together, these findings suggest that TORC1 signaling regulates PMA1 expression and pHc through the CK2-Sir2 axis, which is also controlled by cAMP/PKA signaling in yeast.

PMID: 32449834 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Restoration of CTSD (cathepsin D) and lysosomal function in stroke is neuroprotective.

7 hours 12 minutes ago

Restoration of CTSD (cathepsin D) and lysosomal function in stroke is neuroprotective.

Autophagy. 2020 May 25;:1-19

Authors: Hossain MI, Marcus JM, Lee JH, Garcia PL, Singh V, Shacka JJ, Zhang J, Gropen TI, Falany CN, Andrabi SA

Abstract
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. The pathophysiological mechanisms associated with stroke are very complex and not fully understood. Lysosomal function has a vital physiological function in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In neurons, CTSD (cathepsin D) is an essential protease involved in the regulation of proteolytic activity of the lysosomes. Loss of CTSD leads to lysosomal dysfunction and accumulation of different cellular proteins implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. In cerebral ischemia, the role of CTSD and lysosomal function is not clearly defined. We used oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in mouse cortical neurons and the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of stroke to assess the role of CTSD in stroke pathophysiology. Our results show a time-dependent decrease in CTSD protein levels and activity in the mouse brain after stroke and neurons following OGD, with concurrent defects in lysosomal function. We found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of CTSD in neurons is sufficient to cause lysosomal dysfunction. CTSD knockdown further aggravates lysosomal dysfunction and cell death in OGD-exposed neurons. Restoration of CTSD protein levels via lentiviral transduction increases CTSD activity in neurons and, thus, renders resistance to OGD-mediated defects in lysosomal function and cell death. This study indicates that CTSD-dependent lysosomal function is critical for maintaining neuronal survival in cerebral ischemia; thus, strategies focused on maintaining CTSD function in neurons are potentially novel therapeutic approaches to prevent neuronal death in stroke.
ABBREVIATIONS: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ACTB: actin beta; AD: Alzheimer disease; ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; CQ: chloroquine; CTSB: cathepsin B; CTSD: cathepsin D; CTSL: cathepsin L; FTD: frontotemporal dementia, HD: Huntington disease; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LSD: lysosomal storage disease; MCAO: middle cerebral artery occlusion; OGD: oxygen glucose deprivation; OGR: oxygen glucose resupply; PD: Parkinson disease; SQSMT1: sequestosome 1; TCA: trichloroacetic acid; TTC: triphenyl tetrazolium chloride.

PMID: 32450052 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lamin A involvement in ageing processes.

1 day 8 hours ago

Lamin A involvement in ageing processes.

Ageing Res Rev. 2020 May 21;:101073

Authors: Cenni V, Capanni C, Mattioli E, Schena E, Squarzoni S, Bacalini MG, Garagnani P, Salvioli S, Franceschi C, Lattanzi G

Abstract
Lamin A, a main constituent of the nuclear lamina, is the major splicing product of the LMNA gene, which also encodes lamin C, lamin A delta 10 and lamin C2. Involvement of lamin A in the ageing process became clear after the discovery that a group of progeroid syndromes, currently referred to as progeroid laminopathies, are caused by mutations in LMNA gene. Progeroid laminopathies include Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria, Mandibuloacral Dysplasia, Atypical Progeria and atypical-Werner syndrome, disabling and life-threatening diseases with accelerated ageing, bone resorption, lipodystrophy, skin abnormalities and cardiovascular disorders. Defects in lamin A post-translational maturation occur in progeroid syndromes and accumulated prelamin A affects ageing-related processes, such as mTOR signaling, epigenetic modifications, stress response, inflammation, microRNA activation and mechanosignaling. In this review, we briefly describe the role of these pathways in physiological ageing and go in deep into lamin A-dependent mechanisms that accelerate the ageing process. Finally, we propose that lamin A acts as a sensor of cell intrinsic and environmental stress through transient prelamin A accumulation, which triggers stress response mechanisms. Exacerbation of lamin A sensor activity due to stably elevated prelamin A levels contributes to the onset of a permanent stress response condition, which triggers accelerated ageing.

PMID: 32446955 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Vesicular transport mediates the uptake of cytoplasmic proteins into mitochondria in Drosophila melanogaster.

2 days 8 hours ago

Vesicular transport mediates the uptake of cytoplasmic proteins into mitochondria in Drosophila melanogaster.

Nat Commun. 2020 May 22;11(1):2592

Authors: Chen PL, Huang KT, Cheng CY, Li JC, Chan HY, Lin TY, Su MP, Yang WY, Chang HC, Wang HD, Chen CH

Abstract
Mitochondrial aging, which results in mitochondrial dysfunction, is strongly linked to many age-related diseases. Aging is associated with mitochondrial enlargement and transport of cytosolic proteins into mitochondria. The underlying homeostatic mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial morphology and function, and their breakdown during aging, remain unclear. Here, we identify a mitochondrial protein trafficking pathway in Drosophila melanogaster involving the mitochondria-associated protein Dosmit. Dosmit induces mitochondrial enlargement and the formation of double-membraned vesicles containing cytosolic protein within mitochondria. The rate of vesicle formation increases with age. Vesicles originate from the outer mitochondrial membrane as observed by tracking Tom20 localization, and the process is mediated by the mitochondria-associated Rab32 protein. Dosmit expression level is closely linked to the rate of ubiquitinated protein aggregation, which are themselves associated with age-related diseases. The mitochondrial protein trafficking route mediated by Dosmit offers a promising target for future age-related mitochondrial disease therapies.

PMID: 32444642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The role of SIRT1 in BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage maintenance under oxidative stress.

2 days 8 hours ago

The role of SIRT1 in BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage maintenance under oxidative stress.

Aging (Albany NY). 2020 May 22;12:

Authors: Lu Y, Zhou L, Wang L, He S, Ren H, Zhou N, Hu Z

Abstract
Articular cartilage defects are common in the clinic but difficult to treat. Exploring the chondrogenic molecular mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is of great theoretical interest and industrial significance. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a key factor that induces cartilage differentiation and can induce stem cell chondrogenic differentiation. However, the oxidative stress in the microenvironment during cartilage injury and degeneration inhibits cartilage regeneration and homeostasis. Silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog-1 (SIRT1) is an important histone deacetylase that regulates proliferation, differentiation, aging, and inflammation processes; moreover, it is an essential factor for chondrogenesis. The specific mechanism of SIRT1 in cartilage differentiation and homeostasis is still unclear. First, we investigated whether SIRT1 could coordinate BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation. Second, we investigated the protective effect of SIRT1 on BMP2-induced MSCs under oxidative stress. The results showed that SIRT1 could promote BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, and reduce the apoptosis and decomposition of extracellular matrix under oxidative stress. In summary, these results suggested that SIRT1 plays an important coordination role in BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells and cartilage maintenance under oxidative stress, establishing the experimental basis for exploring the use of SIRT1 in cartilage defect repair.

PMID: 32445555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mechanical properties measured by atomic force microscopy define health biomarkers in ageing C. elegans.

3 days 9 hours ago
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Mechanical properties measured by atomic force microscopy define health biomarkers in ageing C. elegans.

Nat Commun. 2020 02 25;11(1):1043

Authors: Essmann CL, Martinez-Martinez D, Pryor R, Leung KY, Krishnan KB, Lui PP, Greene NDE, Brown AEX, Pawar VM, Srinivasan MA, Cabreiro F

Abstract
Genetic and environmental factors are key drivers regulating organismal lifespan but how these impact healthspan is less well understood. Techniques capturing biomechanical properties of tissues on a nano-scale level are providing new insights into disease mechanisms. Here, we apply Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to quantitatively measure the change in biomechanical properties associated with ageing Caenorhabditis elegans in addition to capturing high-resolution topographical images of cuticle senescence. We show that distinct dietary restriction regimes and genetic pathways that increase lifespan lead to radically different healthspan outcomes. Hence, our data support the view that prolonged lifespan does not always coincide with extended healthspan. Importantly, we identify the insulin signalling pathway in C. elegans and interventions altering bacterial physiology as increasing both lifespan and healthspan. Overall, AFM provides a highly sensitive technique to measure organismal biomechanical fitness and delivers an approach to screen for health-improving conditions, an essential step towards healthy ageing.

PMID: 32098962 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria induce multimorbidity and premature senescence.

3 days 9 hours ago
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T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria induce multimorbidity and premature senescence.

Science. 2020 May 21;:

Authors: Desdín-Micó G, Soto-Heredero G, Aranda JF, Oller J, Carrasco E, Gabandé-Rodríguez E, Blanco EM, Alfranca A, Cussó L, Desco M, Ibañez B, Gortazar AR, Fernández-Marcos P, Navarro MN, Hernaez B, Alcamí A, Baixauli F, Mittelbrunn M

Abstract
The impact of immunometabolism on age-associated diseases remains uncertain. Here, we show that T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria due to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) deficiency act as accelerators of senescence. In mice, these cells instigate multiple aging-related features, including metabolic, cognitive, physical, and cardiovascular alterations, which together result in premature death. T cell metabolic failure induces the accumulation of circulating cytokines, which resembles chronic inflammation characteristic of aging ("inflammaging"). This cytokine storm itself acts as a systemic inducer of senescence. Blocking TNF-α signaling or preventing senescence with NAD+ precursors partially rescues premature aging in mice with Tfam-deficient T cells. Thus, T cells can regulate organismal fitness and lifespan, highlighting the importance of tight immunometabolic control in both aging and the onset of age-associated diseases.

PMID: 32439659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Ultrastructural evidence for self-replication of Alzheimer-associated Aβ42 amyloid along the sides of fibrils.

3 days 9 hours ago
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Ultrastructural evidence for self-replication of Alzheimer-associated Aβ42 amyloid along the sides of fibrils.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 May 21;:

Authors: Törnquist M, Cukalevski R, Weininger U, Meisl G, Knowles TPJ, Leiding T, Malmendal A, Akke M, Linse S

Abstract
The nucleation of Alzheimer-associated Aβ peptide monomers can be catalyzed by preexisting Aβ fibrils. This leads to autocatalytic amplification of aggregate mass and underlies self-replication and generation of toxic oligomers associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. However, the nature of the interactions between the monomeric species and the fibrils during this key process, and indeed the ultrastructural localization of the interaction sites have remained elusive. Here we used NMR and optical spectroscopy to identify conditions that enable the capture of transient species during the aggregation and secondary nucleation of the Aβ42 peptide. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images show that new aggregates protrude from the entire length of the progenitor fibril. These protrusions are morphologically distinct from the well-ordered fibrils dominating at the end of the aggregation process. The data provide direct evidence that self-replication through secondary nucleation occurs along the sides of fibrils, which become heavily decorated under the current solution conditions (14 µM Aβ42, 20 mM sodium phosphate, 200 µM EDTA, pH 6.8).

PMID: 32439711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Peripheral nerve resident macrophages share tissue-specific programming and features of activated microglia.

3 days 9 hours ago
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Peripheral nerve resident macrophages share tissue-specific programming and features of activated microglia.

Nat Commun. 2020 May 21;11(1):2552

Authors: Wang PL, Yim AKY, Kim KW, Avey D, Czepielewski RS, Colonna M, Milbrandt J, Randolph GJ

Abstract
Whereas microglia are recognized as fundamental players in central nervous system (CNS) development and function, much less is known about macrophages of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here, by comparing gene expression across neural and conventional tissue-resident macrophages, we identified transcripts that were shared among neural resident macrophages as well as selectively enriched in PNS macrophages. Remarkably, PNS macrophages constitutively expressed genes previously identified to be upregulated by activated microglia during aging, neurodegeneration, or loss of Sall1. Several microglial activation-associated and PNS macrophage-enriched genes were also expressed in spinal cord microglia at steady state. We further show that PNS macrophages rely on IL-34 for maintenance and arise from both embryonic and hematopoietic precursors, while their expression of activation-associated genes did not differ by ontogeny. Collectively, these data uncover shared and unique features between neural resident macrophages and emphasize the role of nerve environment for shaping PNS macrophage identity.

PMID: 32439942 [PubMed - in process]

Mitochondrial phosphatase PGAM5 modulates cellular senescence by regulating mitochondrial dynamics.

3 days 9 hours ago
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Mitochondrial phosphatase PGAM5 modulates cellular senescence by regulating mitochondrial dynamics.

Nat Commun. 2020 May 21;11(1):2549

Authors: Yu B, Ma J, Li J, Wang D, Wang Z, Wang S

Abstract
Mitochondria undergo dynamic fusion/fission, biogenesis and mitophagy in response to stimuli or stresses. Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis could lead to cell senescence, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We show that deletion of mitochondrial phosphatase PGAM5 leads to accelerated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) senescence in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, PGAM5 is required for mitochondrial fission through dephosphorylating DRP1. PGAM5 deletion leads to increased mitochondrial fusion and decreased mitochondrial turnover. As results, cellular ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated, mTOR and IRF/IFN-β signaling pathways are enhanced, leading to cellular senescence. Overexpression of Drp1 K38A or S637A mutant phenocopies or rescues mTOR activation and senescence in PGAM5-/- cells, respectively. Young but not aging Pgam5-/- mice are resistant to sodium iodate-induced RPE cell death. Our studies establish a link between defective mitochondrial fission, cellular senescence and age-dependent oxidative stress response, which have implications in age-related diseases.

PMID: 32439975 [PubMed - in process]

Exercise training reverses cardiac aging phenotypes associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in male mice.

3 days 9 hours ago
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Exercise training reverses cardiac aging phenotypes associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in male mice.

Aging Cell. 2020 May 22;:e13159

Authors: Roh JD, Houstis N, Yu A, Chang B, Yeri A, Li H, Hobson R, Lerchenmüller C, Vujic A, Chaudhari V, Damilano F, Platt C, Zlotoff D, Lee RT, Shah R, Jerosch-Herold M, Rosenzweig A

Abstract
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common type of HF in older adults. Although no pharmacological therapy has yet improved survival in HFpEF, exercise training (ExT) has emerged as the most effective intervention to improving functional outcomes in this age-related disease. The molecular mechanisms by which ExT induces its beneficial effects in HFpEF, however, remain largely unknown. Given the strong association between aging and HFpEF, we hypothesized that ExT might reverse cardiac aging phenotypes that contribute to HFpEF pathophysiology and additionally provide a platform for novel mechanistic and therapeutic discovery. Here, we show that aged (24-30 months) C57BL/6 male mice recapitulate many of the hallmark features of HFpEF, including preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, subclinical systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, impaired cardiac reserves, exercise intolerance, and pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to older humans, ExT in old mice improved exercise capacity, diastolic function, and contractile reserves, while reducing pulmonary congestion. Interestingly, RNAseq of explanted hearts showed that ExT did not significantly modulate biological pathways targeted by conventional HF medications. However, it reversed multiple age-related pathways, including the global downregulation of cell cycle pathways seen in aged hearts, which was associated with increased capillary density, but no effects on cardiac mass or fibrosis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the aged C57BL/6 male mouse is a valuable model for studying the role of aging biology in HFpEF pathophysiology, and provide a molecular framework for how ExT potentially reverses cardiac aging phenotypes in HFpEF.

PMID: 32441410 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Loss of GFAT-1 feedback regulation activates the hexosamine pathway that modulates protein homeostasis.

4 days 10 hours ago
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Loss of GFAT-1 feedback regulation activates the hexosamine pathway that modulates protein homeostasis.

Nat Commun. 2020 02 04;11(1):687

Authors: Ruegenberg S, Horn M, Pichlo C, Allmeroth K, Baumann U, Denzel MS

Abstract
Glutamine fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) is the key enzyme in the hexosamine pathway (HP) that produces uridine 5'-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), linking energy metabolism with posttranslational protein glycosylation. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we previously identified gfat-1 gain-of-function mutations that elevate UDP-GlcNAc levels, improve protein homeostasis, and extend lifespan. GFAT is highly conserved, but the gain-of-function mechanism and its relevance in mammalian cells remained unclear. Here, we present the full-length crystal structure of human GFAT-1 in complex with various ligands and with important mutations. UDP-GlcNAc directly interacts with GFAT-1, inhibiting catalytic activity. The longevity-associated G451E variant shows drastically reduced sensitivity to UDP-GlcNAc inhibition in enzyme activity assays. Our structural and functional data point to a critical role of the interdomain linker in UDP-GlcNAc inhibition. In mammalian cells, the G451E variant potently activates the HP. Therefore, GFAT-1 gain-of-function through loss of feedback inhibition constitutes a potential target for the treatment of age-related proteinopathies.

PMID: 32019926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via H19/miR-675/APC axis.

4 days 10 hours ago

Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via H19/miR-675/APC axis.

Aging (Albany NY). 2020 May 20;12:

Authors: Ma X, Bian Y, Yuan H, Chen N, Pan Y, Zhou W, Gao S, Du X, Hao S, Yan Z, Li X, Liu K, Xu F, Wang Y, Du Y

Abstract
Bone volume inadequacy is an emerging clinical problem impairing the feasibility and longevity of dental implants. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) have been widely used in bone remodeling and regeneration. This study examined the effect of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-H19 on the human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs)-droved osteogenesis in HBMSCs. HAMSCs and HBMSCs were isolated from abandoned amniotic membrane samples and bone marrow. The coculture system was conducted using transwells, and H19 level was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mechanism was further verified. We here discovered that osteogenesis of HBMSCs was induced by HAMSCs, while H19 level in HAMSCs was increased during coculturing. H19 had no significant effect on the proliferative behaviors of HBMSCs, while its overexpression of H19 in HAMSCs led to the upregulated osteogenesis of HBMSCs in vivo and in vitro; whereas its knockdown reversed these effects. Mechanistically, H19 promoted miR-675 expression and contributed to the competitively bounding of miR-675 and Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), thus significantly activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results suggested that HAMSCs promote osteogenic differentiation of HBMSCs via H19/miR-675/APC pathway, and supply a potential target for the therapeutic treatment of bone-destructive diseases.

PMID: 32434960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

HDAC8 cooperates with SMAD3/4 complex to suppress SIRT7 and promote cell survival and migration.

5 days 11 hours ago
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HDAC8 cooperates with SMAD3/4 complex to suppress SIRT7 and promote cell survival and migration.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 04 06;48(6):2912-2923

Authors: Tang X, Li G, Su F, Cai Y, Shi L, Meng Y, Liu Z, Sun J, Wang M, Qian M, Wang Z, Xu X, Cheng YX, Zhu WG, Liu B

Abstract
NAD+-dependent SIRT7 deacylase plays essential roles in ribosome biogenesis, stress response, genome integrity, metabolism and aging, while how it is transcriptionally regulated is still largely unclear. TGF-β signaling is highly conserved in multicellular organisms, regulating cell growth, cancer stemness, migration and invasion. Here, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase HDAC8 forms complex with SMAD3/4 heterotrimer and occupies SIRT7 promoter, wherein it deacetylates H4 and thus suppresses SIRT7 transcription. Treatment with HDAC8 inhibitor compromises TGF-β signaling via SIRT7-SMAD4 axis and consequently, inhibits lung metastasis and improves chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer. Our data establish a regulatory feedback loop of TGF-β signaling, wherein HDAC8 as a novel cofactor of SMAD3/4 complex, transcriptionally suppresses SIRT7 via local chromatin remodeling and thus further activates TGF-β signaling. Targeting HDAC8 exhibits therapeutic potential for TGF-β signaling related diseases.

PMID: 31970414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Neuronal control of lipid metabolism by STR-2 G protein-coupled receptor promotes longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

5 days 11 hours ago

Neuronal control of lipid metabolism by STR-2 G protein-coupled receptor promotes longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Aging Cell. 2020 May 20;:e13160

Authors: Dixit A, Sandhu A, Modi S, Shashikanth M, Koushika SP, Watts JL, Singh V

Abstract
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) encoding family of genes constitutes more than 6% of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans genome. GPCRs control behavior, innate immunity, chemotaxis, and food search behavior. Here, we show that C. elegans longevity is regulated by a chemosensory GPCR STR-2, expressed in AWC and ASI amphid sensory neurons. STR-2 function is required at temperatures of 20°C and higher on standard Escherichia coli OP50 diet. Under these conditions, this neuronal receptor also controls health span parameters and lipid droplet (LD) homeostasis in the intestine. We show that STR-2 regulates expression of delta-9 desaturases, fat-5, fat-6 and fat-7, and of diacylglycerol acyltransferase dgat-2. Rescue of the STR-2 function in either AWC and ASI, or ASI sensory neurons alone, restores expression of fat-5, dgat-2 and restores LD stores and longevity. Rescue of stored fat levels of GPCR mutant animals to wild-type levels, with low concentration of glucose, rescues its lifespan phenotype. In all, we show that neuronal STR-2 GPCR facilitates control of neutral lipid levels and longevity in C. elegans.

PMID: 32432390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

AMPK-mediated formation of stress granules is required for dietary restriction-induced longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

5 days 11 hours ago

AMPK-mediated formation of stress granules is required for dietary restriction-induced longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Aging Cell. 2020 May 20;:e13157

Authors: Kuo CT, You GT, Jian YJ, Chen TS, Siao YC, Hsu AL, Ching TT

Abstract
Stress granules (SGs) are nonmembranous organelles that are dynamically assembled and disassembled in response to various stressors. Under stressed conditions, polyadenylated mRNAs and translation factors are sequestrated in SGs to promote global repression of protein synthesis. It has been previously demonstrated that SG formation enhances cell survival and stress resistance. However, the physiological role of SGs in organismal aging and longevity regulation remains unclear. In this study, we used TIAR-1::GFP and GTBP-1::GFP as markers to monitor the formation of SGs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, in addition to acute heat stress, SG formation could also be triggered by dietary changes, such as starvation and dietary restriction (DR). We found that HSF-1 is required for the SG formation in response to acute heat shock and starvation but not DR, whereas the AMPK-eEF2K signaling is required for starvation and DR-induced SG formation but not heat shock. Moreover, our data suggest that this AMPK-eEF2K pathway-mediated SG formation is required for lifespan extension by DR, but dispensable for the longevity by reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Collectively, our findings unveil a novel role of SG formation in DR-induced longevity.

PMID: 32432401 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Translational control of one-carbon metabolism underpins ribosomal protein phenotypes in cell division and longevity.

5 days 11 hours ago

Translational control of one-carbon metabolism underpins ribosomal protein phenotypes in cell division and longevity.

Elife. 2020 May 20;9:

Authors: Maitra N, He C, Blank HM, Tsuchiya M, Schilling B, Kaeberlein M, Aramayo R, Kennedy BK, Polymenis M

Abstract
A long-standing problem is how cells that lack one of the highly similar ribosomal proteins (RPs) often display distinct phenotypes. Yeast and other organisms live longer when they lack specific ribosomal proteins, especially of the large 60S subunit of the ribosome. However, longevity is neither associated with the generation time of RP deletion mutants nor with bulk inhibition of protein synthesis. Here, we queried actively dividing RP mutants through the cell cycle. Our data link transcriptional, translational, and metabolic changes to phenotypes associated with the loss of paralogous RPs. We uncovered translational control of transcripts encoding enzymes of methionine and serine metabolism, which are part of one-carbon (1C) pathways. Cells lacking Rpl22Ap, which are long-lived, have lower levels of metabolites associated with 1C metabolism. Loss of 1C enzymes increased the longevity of wild type cells. 1C pathways exist in all organisms and targeting the relevant enzymes could represent longevity interventions.

PMID: 32432546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Interaction between RECQL4 and OGG1 promotes repair of oxidative base lesion 8-oxoG and is regulated by SIRT1 deacetylase.

5 days 11 hours ago

Interaction between RECQL4 and OGG1 promotes repair of oxidative base lesion 8-oxoG and is regulated by SIRT1 deacetylase.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 May 20;:

Authors: Duan S, Han X, Akbari M, Croteau DL, Rasmussen LJ, Bohr VA

Abstract
OGG1 initiated base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for repair of oxidative DNA base damage 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). Here, we report that RECQL4 DNA helicase, deficient in the cancer-prone and premature aging Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, physically and functionally interacts with OGG1. RECQL4 promotes catalytic activity of OGG1 and RECQL4 deficiency results in defective 8-oxoG repair and increased genomic 8-oxoG. Furthermore, we show that acute oxidative stress leads to increased RECQL4 acetylation and its interaction with OGG1. The NAD+-dependent protein SIRT1 deacetylates RECQL4 in vitro and in cells thereby controlling the interaction between OGG1 and RECQL4 after DNA repair and maintaining RECQL4 in a low acetylated state. Collectively, we find that RECQL4 is involved in 8-oxoG repair through interaction with OGG1, and that SIRT1 indirectly modulates BER of 8-oxoG by controlling RECQL4-OGG1 interaction.

PMID: 32432680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mitochondrial translation, dynamics, and lysosomes combine to extend lifespan.

5 days 11 hours ago

Mitochondrial translation, dynamics, and lysosomes combine to extend lifespan.

J Cell Biol. 2020 Jun 01;219(6):

Authors: Ali L, Haynes CM

Abstract
In this issue, Liu et al. (2019. J. Cell. Biol.https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201907067) find that the inhibition of mitochondrial ribosomes in combination with impaired mitochondrial fission or fusion increases C. elegans lifespan by activating the transcription factor HLH-30, which promotes lysosomal biogenesis.

PMID: 32434220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The CD153 vaccine is a senotherapeutic option for preventing the accumulation of senescent T cells in mice.

6 days 7 hours ago
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The CD153 vaccine is a senotherapeutic option for preventing the accumulation of senescent T cells in mice.

Nat Commun. 2020 May 18;11(1):2482

Authors: Yoshida S, Nakagami H, Hayashi H, Ikeda Y, Sun J, Tenma A, Tomioka H, Kawano T, Shimamura M, Morishita R, Rakugi H

Abstract
Senotherapy targeting for senescent cells is designed to attenuate age-related dysfunction. Senescent T cells, defined as CD4+ CD44high CD62Llow PD-1+ CD153+ cells, accumulate in visceral adipose tissues (VAT) in obese individuals. Here, we show the long-lasting effect of using CD153 vaccination to remove senescent T cells from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. We administered a CD153 peptide-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate vaccine with Alhydrogel (CD153-Alum) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) 1585 (CD153-CpG) and confirmed an increase in anti-CD153 antibody levels that was sustained for several months. After being fed a HFD for 10-11 weeks, adipose senescent T cell accumulation was significantly reduced in the VAT of CD153-CpG-vaccinated mice, accompanied by glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. A complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) assay indicated that the mouse IgG2 antibody produced in the CD153-CpG-vaccinated mice successfully reduced the number of senescent T cells. The CD153-CpG vaccine is an optional tool for senolytic therapy.

PMID: 32424156 [PubMed - in process]

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Aging, Lifespan & Longevity
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=(Rejuvenation[Title/Abstract] OR Rejuvenate[Title/Abstract] OR Senescent[Title/Abstract] OR Senescence[Title/Abstract] OR Aging[Title/Abstract] OR Ageing[Title/Abstract] OR Lifespan[Title/Abstract] OR Longevity[Title/Abstract] OR Alzheimer[Title/Abstract]) AND ("Nature"[Journal] OR "Science (New York, N.Y.)"[Journal] OR "Cell"[Journal] OR "The New England Journal Of Medicine"[Journal] OR "Lancet"[Journal] OR "Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology"[Journal] OR "Nature Medicine"[Journal] OR "Nature Communications"[Journal] OR "Cell Stem Cell"[Journal] OR "Cell Metabolism"[Journal] OR "Nature Neuroscience"[Journal] OR "Nature Cell Biology"[Journal] OR "Molecular Cell"[Journal] OR "Nature Chemical Biology"[Journal] OR "Genome Biology"[Journal] OR "Plos Medicine"[Journal] OR "Nucleic Acids Research"[Journal] OR "Autophagy"[Journal] OR "Embo J."[Journal] OR "Genome Research"[Journal] OR "Developmental Cell"[Journal] OR "Genes & Development"[Journal] OR "Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America"[Journal] OR "Plos Biology"[Journal] OR "Ageing Research Reviews"[Journal] OR "The Journal Of Cell Biology"[Journal] OR "Molecular and cellular biology"[Journal] OR "Aging Cell"[Journal] OR "Elife"[Journal] OR "Aging"[Journal]) AND ("2020/01/01"[Date - Publication] : "3000"[Date - Publication])
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