Aging, Lifespan & Longevity

Disturbed retinoid metabolism upon loss of <em>rlbp1a</em> impairs cone function and leads to subretinal lipid deposits and photoreceptor degeneration in the zebrafish retina

18 hours 58 minutes ago
The RLBP1 gene encodes the 36 kDa cellular retinaldehyde binding protein, CRALBP, a soluble retinoid carrier, in the visual cycle of the eyes. Mutations in RLBP1 are associated with recessively inherited clinical phenotypes, including Bothnia dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, retinitis punctata albescens, fundus albipunctatus, and Newfoundland rod-cone dystrophy. However, the etiology of these retinal disorders is not well understood. Here, we generated homologous zebrafish models to bridge this...
Domino K Schlegel

Control of satellite cell function in muscle regeneration and its disruption in ageing

1 day 18 hours ago
Skeletal muscle contains a designated population of adult stem cells, called satellite cells, which are generally quiescent. In homeostasis, satellite cells proliferate only sporadically and usually by asymmetric cell division to replace myofibres damaged by daily activity and maintain the stem cell pool. However, satellite cells can also be robustly activated upon tissue injury, after which they undergo symmetric divisions to generate new stem cells and numerous proliferating myoblasts that...
Pedro Sousa-Victor

Inflammaging and Cannabinoids

2 days 18 hours ago
Aging is a complex phenomenon associated with a wide spectrum of physical and physiological changes affecting every part of all metazoans, if they escape death prior to reaching maturity. Critical to survival, the immune system evolved as the principal component of response to injury and defense against pathogen invasions. Because how significantly immune system affects and is affected by aging, several neologisms now appear to encapsulate these reciprocal relationships, such as...
Babak Baban

DNA Methylation in Genes Associated with the Evolution of Ageing and Disease: A Critical Review

2 days 18 hours ago
Ageing is characterised by a physical decline in biological functioning which results in a progressive risk of mortality with time. As a biological phenomenon, it is underpinned by the dysregulation of a myriad of complex processes. Recently, however, ever-increasing evidence has associated epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation (DNAm) with age-onset pathologies, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. These diseases compromise healthspan. Consequently, there...
Mark Tomás Mc Auley

Many chronological aging clocks can be found throughout the epigenome: Implications for quantifying biological aging

4 days 18 hours ago
Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of aging and age-related diseases. Computational models using DNA methylation data can create "epigenetic clocks" which are proposed to reflect "biological" aging. Thus, it is important to understand the relationship between predictive clock sites and aging biology. To do this, we examined over 450,000 methylation sites from 9,699 samples. We found ~20% of the measured genomic cytosines can be used to make many different epigenetic clocks whose age...
Hunter L Porter

Forestalling age-impaired angiogenesis and blood flow by targeting NOX: Interplay of NOX1, IL-6, and SASP in propagating cell senescence

4 days 18 hours ago
In an aging population, intense interest has shifted toward prolonging health span. Mounting evidence suggests that cellular reactive species are propagators of cell damage, inflammation, and cellular senescence. Thus, such species have emerged as putative provocateurs and targets for senolysis, and a clearer understanding of their molecular origin and regulation is of paramount importance. In an inquiry into signaling triggered by aging and proxy instigator, hyperglycemia, we show that NADPH...
Yao Li

A metabolome atlas of the aging mouse brain

4 days 18 hours ago
The mammalian brain relies on neurochemistry to fulfill its functions. Yet, the complexity of the brain metabolome and its changes during diseases or aging remain poorly understood. Here, we generate a metabolome atlas of the aging wildtype mouse brain from 10 anatomical regions spanning from adolescence to old age. We combine data from three assays and structurally annotate 1,547 metabolites. Almost all metabolites significantly differ between brain regions or age groups, but not by sex. A...
Jun Ding

A C. elegans model of C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD uncovers a conserved role for eIF2D in RAN translation

4 days 18 hours ago
A hexanucleotide repeat expansion GGGGCC in the non-coding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Toxic dipeptide repeats (DPRs) are synthesized from GGGGCC via repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. Here, we develop C. elegans models that express, either ubiquitously or exclusively in neurons, 75 GGGGCC repeats flanked by intronic C9orf72 sequence. The worms generate DPRs (poly-glycine-alanine...
Yoshifumi Sonobe

Diurnal oscillations in gut bacterial load and composition eclipse seasonal and lifetime dynamics in wild meerkats

5 days 18 hours ago
Circadian rhythms in gut microbiota composition are crucial for metabolic function, yet the extent to which they govern microbial dynamics compared to seasonal and lifetime processes remains unknown. Here, we investigate gut bacterial dynamics in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over a 20-year period to compare diurnal, seasonal, and lifetime processes in concert, applying ratios of absolute abundance. We found that diurnal oscillations in bacterial load and composition eclipsed seasonal and...
Alice Risely

Rac1 promotes kidney collecting duct integrity by limiting actomyosin activity

6 days 18 hours ago
A polarized collecting duct (CD), formed from the branching ureteric bud (UB), is a prerequisite for an intact kidney. The small Rho GTPase Rac1 is critical for actin cytoskeletal regulation. We investigated the role of Rac1 in the kidney collecting system by selectively deleting it in mice at the initiation of UB development. The mice exhibited only a mild developmental phenotype; however, with aging, the CD developed a disruption of epithelial integrity and function. Despite intact integrin...
Fabian Bock

p107 mediated mitochondrial function controls muscle stem cell proliferative fates

6 days 18 hours ago
Muscle diseases and aging are associated with impaired myogenic stem cell self-renewal and fewer proliferating progenitors (MPs). Importantly, distinct metabolic states induced by glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation have been connected to MP proliferation and differentiation. However, how these energy-provisioning mechanisms cooperate remain obscure. Herein, we describe a mechanism by which mitochondrial-localized transcriptional co-repressor p107 regulates MP proliferation. We show p107...
Debasmita Bhattacharya

Shear relaxation governs fusion dynamics of biomolecular condensates

6 days 18 hours ago
Phase-separated biomolecular condensates must respond agilely to biochemical and environmental cues in performing their wide-ranging cellular functions, but our understanding of condensate dynamics is lagging. Ample evidence now indicates biomolecular condensates as viscoelastic fluids, where shear stress relaxes at a finite rate, not instantaneously as in viscous liquids. Yet the fusion dynamics of condensate droplets has only been modeled based on viscous liquids, with fusion time given by the...
Archishman Ghosh

dNTPpoolDB: a manually curated database of experimentally determined dNTP pools and pool changes in biological samples

1 week ago
Stimulated by the growing interest in the role of dNTP pools in physiological and malignant processes, we established dNTPpoolDB, the database that offers access to quantitative data on dNTP pools from a wide range of species, experimental and developmental conditions (https://dntppool.org/). The database includes measured absolute or relative cellular levels of the four canonical building blocks of DNA and of exotic dNTPs, as well. In addition to the measured quantity, dNTPpoolDB contains ample...
Rita Pancsa

mRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status

1 week 1 day ago
While mRNA vaccines are proving highly efficacious against SARS-CoV-2, it is important to determine how booster doses and prior infection influence the immune defense they elicit, and whether they protect against variants. Focusing on the T cell response, we conducted a longitudinal study of infection-naïve and COVID-19 convalescent donors before vaccination and after their first and second vaccine doses, using a high-parameter CyTOF analysis to phenotype their SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells....
Jason Neidleman

A leucine-derived fatty acid unlocks the mTOR to development

1 week 1 day ago
Understanding how nutrient-sensitive signaling pathways regulate development and aging is an active area of research. In this issue of Developmental Cell,Zhu and colleagues (2021) identify a specific monomethylated branched-chain fatty acid that overrides nutrient deprivation signaling and activates mTORC1 in C. elegans and mammalian cells.
Chung-Yang Yeh

From corpora amylacea to wasteosomes: History and perspectives

1 week 2 days ago
Corpora amylacea (CA) have been described in several human organs and have been associated with ageing and several pathological conditions. Although they were first discovered two centuries ago, their function and significance have not yet been identified. Here, we provide a chronological summary of the findings on CA in various organs and identify their similarities. After collecting and integrating these findings, we propose to consider CA as waste containers created by specific cells, which...
Marta Riba
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1 hour 20 minutes ago
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