Aging & Longevity

Low-frequency somatic mutations are heritable in tropical trees <em>Dicorynia guianensis</em> and <em>Sextonia rubra</em>

21 hours 13 minutes ago
Somatic mutations potentially play a role in plant evolution, but common expectations pertaining to plant somatic mutations remain insufficiently tested. Unlike in most animals, the plant germline is assumed to be set aside late in development, leading to the expectation that plants accumulate somatic mutations along growth. Therefore, several predictions were made on the fate of somatic mutations: mutations have generally low frequency in plant tissues; mutations at high frequency have a higher...
Sylvain Schmitt

A unified framework for evolutionary genetic and physiological theories of aging

21 hours 13 minutes ago
Why and how we age are 2 intertwined questions that have fascinated scientists for many decades. However, attempts to answer these questions remain compartmentalized, preventing a comprehensive understanding of the aging process. We argue that the current lack of knowledge about the evolution of aging mechanisms is due to a lack of clarity regarding evolutionary theories of aging that explicitly involve physiological processes: the disposable soma theory (DST) and the developmental theory of...
Jean-François Lemaître

Neuronal waste management: new roles for autophagy genes in the extrusion of protein aggregates and in longevity

21 hours 13 minutes ago
A decline in macroautophagic/autophagic activity with age contributes to the accumulation of damaged molecules and is associated with the impairment of neuronal functions and the onset of age-related diseases, particularly neurodegenerative disorders. To learn about the neuronal-specific roles of autophagy genes in aging, we specifically inhibited autophagy genes pan-neuronally in C. elegans, which leads to unexpected positive impacts on neuronal homeostasis including polyQ aggregate load and...
Ling-Hsuan Sun

Aging STINGs: mitophagy at the crossroads of neuroinflammation

21 hours 13 minutes ago
Loss of proteostasis and dysregulated mitochondrial function are part of the traditional hallmarks of aging, and in their last revision impaired macroautophagy and chronic inflammation are also included. Mitophagy is at the intersection of all these processes but whether it undergoes age-associated perturbations was not known. In our recent work, we performed a systematic and systemic analysis of mitolysosome levels in mice and found that, despite the already-known decrease in non-selective...
Juan Ignacio Jiménez-Loygorri

Osteocyte-derived sclerostin impairs cognitive function during ageing and Alzheimer's disease progression

21 hours 13 minutes ago
Ageing increases susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Serum levels of sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived Wnt-β-catenin signalling antagonist, increase with age and inhibit osteoblastogenesis. As Wnt-β-catenin signalling acts as a protective mechanism for memory, we hypothesize that osteocyte-derived sclerostin can impact cognitive function under pathological conditions. Here we show that osteocyte-derived sclerostin can cross the blood-brain barrier of...
Tianshu Shi

Type 1 interferons and Foxo1 down-regulation play a key role in age-related T-cell exhaustion in mice

1 day 21 hours ago
Foxo family transcription factors are critically involved in multiple processes, such as metabolism, quiescence, cell survival and cell differentiation. Although continuous, high activity of Foxo transcription factors extends the life span of some species, the involvement of Foxo proteins in mammalian aging remains to be determined. Here, we show that Foxo1 is down-regulated with age in mouse T cells. This down-regulation of Foxo1 in T cells may contribute to the disruption of naive T-cell...
Aurélie Durand

A homoeostatic switch causing glycerol-3-phosphate and phosphoethanolamine accumulation triggers senescence by rewiring lipid metabolism

1 day 21 hours ago
Cellular senescence affects many physiological and pathological processes and is characterized by durable cell cycle arrest, an inflammatory secretory phenotype and metabolic reprogramming. Here, by using dynamic transcriptome and metabolome profiling in human fibroblasts with different subtypes of senescence, we show that a homoeostatic switch that results in glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) accumulation links lipid metabolism to the senescence gene expression...
Khaled Tighanimine

Histone deficiency and hypoacetylation in the aging retinal pigment epithelium

1 day 21 hours ago
Histones serve as a major carrier of epigenetic information in the form of post-translational modifications which are vital for controlling gene expression, maintaining cell identity, and ensuring proper cellular function. Loss of histones in the aging genome can drastically impact the epigenetic landscape of the cell leading to altered chromatin structure and changes in gene expression profiles. In this study, we investigated the impact of age-related changes on histone levels and histone...
Sushil K Dubey

Interplay between autophagy and CncC regulates dendrite pruning in <em>Drosophila</em>

1 day 21 hours ago
Autophagy is essential for the turnover of damaged organelles and long-lived proteins. It is responsible for many biological processes such as maintaining brain functions and aging. Impaired autophagy is often linked to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. However, the role of autophagy in neuronal pruning during development remains poorly understood. Here, we report that autophagy regulates dendrite-specific pruning of ddaC sensory neurons in parallel to local caspase...
Jue Yu Kelly Tan

Enhancing chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy by modulating the p53 signaling network with Δ133p53α

1 day 21 hours ago
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell dysfunction is a major barrier to achieving lasting remission in hematologic cancers, especially in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We have shown previously that Δ133p53α, an endogenous isoform of the human TP53 gene, decreases in expression with age in human T cells, and that reconstitution of Δ133p53α in poorly functional T cells can rescue proliferation [A. M. Mondal et al., J. Clin. Invest. 123, 5247-5257 (2013)]. Although Δ133p53α lacks a...
Christopher Roselle

S100A8-enriched microglia populate the brain of tau-seeded and accelerated aging mice

1 day 21 hours ago
Long considered to fluctuate between pro- and anti-inflammatory states, it has now become evident that microglia occupy a variegated phenotypic landscape with relevance to aging and neurodegeneration. However, whether specific microglial subsets converge in or contribute to both processes that eventually affect brain function is less clear. To investigate this, we analyzed microglial heterogeneity in a tauopathy mouse model (K18-seeded P301L) and an accelerated aging model...
Roxane Gruel

Mechanisms of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease

2 days 21 hours ago
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the mechanisms underlying its etiology and progression are complex and multifactorial. The higher AD risk in women may serve as a clue to better understand these complicated processes. In this review, we examine aspects of AD that demonstrate sex-dependent effects and delve into the potential biological mechanisms responsible, compiling findings from advanced technologies such as single-cell RNA sequencing, metabolomics, and multi-omics analyses. We review evidence...
Chloe Lopez-Lee

An iron rheostat controls hematopoietic stem cell fate

2 days 21 hours ago
Mechanisms governing the maintenance of blood-producing hematopoietic stem and multipotent progenitor cells (HSPCs) are incompletely understood, particularly those regulating fate, ensuring long-term maintenance, and preventing aging-associated stem cell dysfunction. We uncovered a role for transitory free cytoplasmic iron as a rheostat for adult stem cell fate control. We found that HSPCs harbor comparatively small amounts of free iron and show the activation of a conserved molecular response...
Yun-Ruei Kao

Multiomics insights into the female reproductive aging

3 days 21 hours ago
The human female reproductive lifespan significantly diminishes with age, leading to decreased fertility, reduced fertility quality and endocrine function disorders. While many aspects of aging in general have been extensively documented, the precise mechanisms governing programmed aging in the female reproductive system remain elusive. Recent advancements in omics technologies and computational capabilities have facilitated the emergence of multiomics deep phenotyping. Through the application...
Simin Wei

Understanding age-related pathologic changes in TDP-43 functions and their consequence on RNA splicing and signalling in health and disease

3 days 21 hours ago
TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a key component in RNA splicing which plays a crucial role in the aging process. In neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 Encephalopathy (LATE), TDP-43 can be mutated, mislocalised out of the nucleus of neurons and glial cells and form cytoplasmic inclusions. These TDP-43 alterations can lead to its RNA splicing dysregulation and contribute to...
Flora Cheng

Reducing the metabolic burden of rRNA synthesis promotes healthy longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans

3 days 21 hours ago
Ribosome biogenesis is initiated by RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated synthesis of pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA). Pol I activity was previously linked to longevity, but the underlying mechanisms were not studied beyond effects on nucleolar structure and protein translation. Here we use multi-omics and functional tests to show that curtailment of Pol I activity remodels the lipidome and preserves mitochondrial function to promote longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Reduced pre-rRNA synthesis...
Samim Sharifi

Vitamin D and ischemic stroke - association, mechanisms, and therapeutics

4 days 21 hours ago
Confronting the rising tide of ischemic stroke and its associated mortality and morbidity with ageing, prevention and acute management of ischemic stroke is of paramount importance. Mounting observational studies have established a non-linear association of vitamin D status with cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke. Paradoxically, current clinical trials fail to demonstrate the cardiovascular benefits of vitamin D supplementation. We aim to update recent clinical and experimental...
Pan Cui

Genome-wide profiles of DNA damage represent highly accurate predictors of mammalian age

4 days 21 hours ago
The identification of novel age-related biomarkers represents an area of intense research interest. Despite multiple studies associating DNA damage with aging, there is a glaring paucity of DNA damage-based biomarkers of age, mainly due to the lack of precise methods for genome-wide surveys of different types of DNA damage. Recently, we developed two techniques for genome-wide mapping of the most prevalent types of DNA damage, single-strand breaks and abasic sites, with nucleotide-level...
Huifen Cao
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