Aging, Lifespan & Longevity

An intrinsically disordered pathological prion variant Y145Stop converts into self-seeding amyloids via liquid-liquid phase separation

3 weeks 2 days ago
Biomolecular condensation via liquid-liquid phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins/regions (IDPs/IDRs) along with other biomolecules is proposed to control critical cellular functions, whereas aberrant phase transitions are associated with a range of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that a disease-associated stop codon mutation of the prion protein (PrP) at tyrosine 145 (Y145Stop), resulting in a truncated, highly disordered, N-terminal IDR, spontaneously phase-separates...
Aishwarya Agarwal

Stress and telomere shortening: Insights from cellular mechanisms

3 weeks 2 days ago
Short telomeres confer risk of degenerative diseases. Chronic psychological stress can lead to disease through many pathways, and research from in vitro studies to human longitudinal studies has pointed to stress-induced telomere damage as an important pathway. However, there has not been a comprehensive model to describe how changes in stress physiology and neuroendocrine pathways can lead to changes in telomere biology. Critically short telomeres or the collapse of the telomere structure...
Jue Lin

Novel small molecule inhibition of IKK/NF-kappaB activation reduces markers of senescence and improves healthspan in mouse models of aging

3 weeks 3 days ago
Constitutive NF-κB activation is associated with cellular senescence and stem cell dysfunction and rare variants in NF-κB family members are enriched in centenarians. We recently identified a novel small molecule (SR12343) that inhibits IKK/NF-κB activation by disrupting the association between IKKβ and NEMO. Here we investigated the therapeutic effects of SR12343 on senescence and aging in three different mouse models. SR12343 reduced senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity...
Lei Zhang

Sensory transduction is required for normal development and maturation of cochlear inner hair cell synapses

3 weeks 3 days ago
Acoustic overexposure and aging can damage auditory synapses in the inner ear by a process known as synaptopathy. These insults may also damage hair bundles and the sensory transduction apparatus in auditory hair cells. However, a connection between sensory transduction and synaptopathy has not been established. To evaluate potential contributions of sensory transduction to synapse formation and development, we assessed inner hair cell synapses in several genetic models of dysfunctional sensory...
John Lee

Microbiota-derived acetate enables the metabolic fitness of the brain innate immune system during health and disease

3 weeks 4 days ago
As tissue macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), microglia constitute the pivotal immune cells of this organ. Microglial features are strongly dependent on environmental cues such as commensal microbiota. Gut bacteria are known to continuously modulate microglia maturation and function by the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, the precise mechanism of this crosstalk is unknown. Here we determined that the immature phenotype of microglia from germ-free (GF) mice is...
Daniel Erny

Molecular programs of fibrotic change in aging human lung

3 weeks 4 days ago
Lung fibrosis is increasingly detected with aging and has been associated with poor outcomes in acute lung injury or infection. However, the molecular programs driving this pro-fibrotic evolution are unclear. Here we profile distal lung samples from healthy human donors across the lifespan. Gene expression profiling by bulk RNAseq reveals both increasing cellular senescence and pro-fibrotic pathway activation with age. Quantitation of telomere length shows progressive shortening with age, which...
Seoyeon Lee

Dysfunctional TRPM8 signalling in the vascular response to environmental cold in ageing

3 weeks 5 days ago
Ageing is associated with increased vulnerability to environmental cold exposure. Previously, we identified the role of the cold-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) A1, M8 receptors as vascular cold sensors in mouse skin. We hypothesised that this dynamic cold-sensor system may become dysfunctional in ageing. We show that behavioural and vascular responses to skin local environmental cooling are impaired with even moderate ageing, with reduced TRPM8 gene/protein expression especially....
Dibesh Thapa

Homologous recombination-mediated irreversible genome damage underlies telomere-induced senescence

3 weeks 5 days ago
Loss of telomeric DNA leads to telomere uncapping, which triggers a persistent, p53-centric DNA damage response that sustains a stable senescence-associated proliferation arrest. Here, we show that in normal cells telomere uncapping triggers a focal telomeric DNA damage response accompanied by a transient cell cycle arrest. Subsequent cell division with dysfunctional telomeres resulted in sporadic telomeric sister chromatid fusions that gave rise to next-mitosis genome instability, including...
Sabrina Ghadaouia

Insights into T-cell dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease

3 weeks 5 days ago
T cells, the critical immune cells of the adaptive immune system, are often dysfunctional in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are involved in AD pathology. Reports highlight neuroinflammation as a crucial modulator of AD pathogenesis, and aberrant T cells indirectly contribute to neuroinflammation by secreting proinflammatory mediators via direct crosstalk with glial cells infiltrating the brain. However, the mechanisms underlying T-cell abnormalities in AD appear multifactorial. Risk factors for AD...
Linbin Dai

Non-genomic rewiring of vitamin D receptor to p53 as a key to Alzheimer's disease

3 weeks 5 days ago
Observational epidemiological studies have associated vitamin D deficiency with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether vitamin D deficiency would result in some impacts on the vitamin D binding receptor (VDR) remains to be characterized in AD. Vitamin D helps maintain adult brain health genomically through binding with and activating a VDR/retinoid X receptor (RXR) transcriptional complex. Thus, we investigated the role of VDR in AD using postmortem human brains, APP/PS1 mice, and cell...
Rai-Hua Lai

Impaired HA-specific T follicular helper cell and antibody responses to influenza vaccination are linked to inflammation in humans

3 weeks 5 days ago
Antibody production following vaccination can provide protective immunity to subsequent infection by pathogens such as influenza viruses. However, circumstances where antibody formation is impaired after vaccination, such as in older people, require us to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin successful vaccination in order to improve vaccine design for at-risk groups. Here, by studying the breadth of anti-haemagglutinin (HA) IgG, serum cytokines, and B and T cell...
Danika L Hill

Biomarkers in a socially exchanged /fluid reflect colony maturity, behavior, and distributed metabolism

3 weeks 5 days ago
In cooperative systems exhibiting division of labor, such as microbial communities, multicellular organisms, and social insect colonies, individual units share costs and benefits through both task specialization and exchanged materials. Socially exchanged fluids, like seminal fluid and milk, allow individuals to molecularly influence conspecifics. Many social insects have a social circulatory system, where food and endogenously produced molecules are transferred mouth-to-mouth (stomodeal...
Sanja M Hakala

Structural differences in amyloid-beta fibrils from brains of nondemented elderly individuals and Alzheimer's disease patients

3 weeks 5 days ago
Although amyloid plaques composed of fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ) assemblies are a diagnostic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), quantities of amyloid similar to those in AD patients are observed in brain tissue of some nondemented elderly individuals. The relationship between amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration in AD has, therefore, been unclear. Here, we use solid-state NMR to investigate whether molecular structures of Aβ fibrils from brain tissue of nondemented elderly individuals with...
Ujjayini Ghosh

Dietary citrate supplementation enhances longevity, metabolic health, and memory performance through promoting ketogenesis

3 weeks 6 days ago
Citrate is an essential substrate for energy metabolism that plays critical roles in regulating cell growth and survival. However, the action of citrate in regulating metabolism, cognition, and aging at the organismal level remains poorly understood. Here, we report that dietary supplementation with citrate significantly reduces energy status and extends lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. Our genetic studies in fruit flies implicate a molecular mechanism associated with AMP-activated protein...
Shou-Zen Fan

Glial AP1 is activated with aging and accelerated by traumatic brain injury

3 weeks 6 days ago
The emergence of degenerative disease after traumatic brain injury is often described as an acceleration of normal age-related processes. Whether similar molecular processes occur after injury and in age is unclear. Here we identify a functionally dynamic and lasting transcriptional response in glia, mediated by the conserved transcription factor AP1. In the early post-TBI period, glial AP1 is essential for recovery, ensuring brain integrity and animal survival. In sharp contrast, chronic AP1...
China N Byrns

The protective effect of mindfulness and compassion meditation practices on ageing: Hypotheses, models and experimental implementation

4 weeks ago
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a major health and societal issue; there is no treatment to date and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease are not well understood. Yet, there is hope that AD risk factors and thus the number of AD cases can be significantly reduced by prevention measures based on lifestyle modifications as targeted by non-pharmacological preventive interventions. So far, these interventions have rarely targeted the psycho-affective risk factors related to...
Antoine Lutz

Resolvin-D2 targets myogenic cells and improves muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

4 weeks 1 day ago
Lack of dystrophin causes muscle degeneration, which is exacerbated by chronic inflammation and reduced regenerative capacity of muscle stem cells in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). To date, glucocorticoids remain the gold standard for the treatment of DMD. These drugs are able to slow down the progression of the disease and increase lifespan by dampening the chronic and excessive inflammatory process; however, they also have numerous harmful side effects that hamper their therapeutic...
Junio Dort

Identification of long-lived proteins in the mitochondria reveals increased stability of the electron transport chain

4 weeks 2 days ago
In order to combat molecular damage, most cellular proteins undergo rapid turnover. We have previously identified large nuclear protein assemblies that can persist for years in post-mitotic tissues and are subject to age-related decline. Here, we report that mitochondria can be long lived in the mouse brain and reveal that specific mitochondrial proteins have half-lives longer than the average proteome. These mitochondrial long-lived proteins (mitoLLPs) are core components of the electron...
Shefali Krishna

Cytoplasmic DNA: sources, sensing, and role in aging and disease

4 weeks 2 days ago
Endogenous cytoplasmic DNA (cytoDNA) species are emerging as key mediators of inflammation in diverse physiological and pathological contexts. Although the role of endogenous cytoDNA in innate immune activation is well established, the cytoDNA species themselves are often poorly characterized and difficult to distinguish, and their mechanisms of formation, scope of function and contribution to disease are incompletely understood. Here, we summarize current knowledge in this rapidly progressing...
Karl N Miller
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Aging, Lifespan & Longevity
Aging: Latest results from PubMed
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