Aging, Lifespan & Longevity

Integrated genetic analyses revealed novel human longevity loci and reduced risks of multiple diseases in a cohort study of 15,651 Chinese individuals

4 days 6 hours ago
There is growing interest in studying the genetic contributions to longevity, but limited relevant genes have been identified. In this study, we performed a genetic association study of longevity in a total of 15,651 Chinese individuals. Novel longevity loci, BMPER (rs17169634; p = 7.91 × 10^(-15) ) and TMEM43/XPC (rs1043943; p = 3.59 × 10^(-8) ), were identified in a case-control analysis of 11,045 individuals. BRAF (rs1267601; p = 8.33 × 10^(-15) ) and BMPER (rs17169634; p = 1.45 × 10^(-10) )...
Xiaomin Liu

BiT age: A transcriptome-based aging clock near the theoretical limit of accuracy

4 days 6 hours ago
Aging clocks dissociate biological from chronological age. The estimation of biological age is important for identifying gerontogenes and assessing environmental, nutritional, or therapeutic impacts on the aging process. Recently, methylation markers were shown to allow estimation of biological age based on age-dependent somatic epigenetic alterations. However, DNA methylation is absent in some species such as Caenorhabditis elegans and it remains unclear whether and how the epigenetic clocks...
David H Meyer

Inhibition of neuroinflammatory nitric oxide signaling suppresses glycation and prevents neuronal dysfunction in mouse prion disease

4 days 6 hours ago
Several neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein misfolding (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease) exhibit oxidative and nitrergic stress following initiation of neuroinflammatory pathways. Associated nitric oxide (NO)-mediated posttranslational modifications impact upon protein functions that can exacerbate pathology. Nonenzymatic and irreversible glycation signaling has been implicated as an underlying pathway that promotes protein misfolding, but the direct interactions between both...
Julie-Myrtille Bourgognon

Unique molecular characteristics and microglial origin of Kv1.3 channel-positive brain myeloid cells in Alzheimer's disease

5 days 6 hours ago
Kv1.3 potassium channels, expressed by proinflammatory central nervous system mononuclear phagocytes (CNS-MPs), are promising therapeutic targets for modulating neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The molecular characteristics of Kv1.3-high CNS-MPs and their cellular origin from microglia or CNS-infiltrating monocytes are unclear. While Kv1.3 blockade reduces amyloid beta (Aβ) burden in mouse models, the downstream immune effects on molecular profiles of CNS-MPs remain unknown. We...
Supriya Ramesha

NF-κB-induced R-loop accumulation and DNA damage select for nucleotide excision repair deficiencies in adult T cell leukemia

5 days 6 hours ago
Constitutive NF-κB activation (NF-κB^(CA)) confers survival and proliferation advantages to cancer cells and frequently occurs in T/B cell malignancies including adult T cell leukemia (ATL) caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Counterintuitively, NF-κB^(CA) by the HTLV-1 transactivator/oncoprotein Tax induces a senescence response, and HTLV-1 infections in culture mostly result in senescence or cell-cycle arrest due to NF-κB^(CA) How NF-κB^(CA) induces senescence, and how ATL...
Yunlong He

Cells recognize osmotic stress through liquid-liquid phase separation lubricated with poly(ADP-ribose)

5 days 6 hours ago
Cells are under threat of osmotic perturbation; cell volume maintenance is critical in cerebral edema, inflammation and aging, in which prominent changes in intracellular or extracellular osmolality emerge. After osmotic stress-enforced cell swelling or shrinkage, the cells regulate intracellular osmolality to recover their volume. However, the mechanisms recognizing osmotic stress remain obscured. We previously clarified that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 3 (ASK3) bidirectionally responds...
Kengo Watanabe

Bidirectional regulation of glial potassium buffering: glioprotection versus neuroprotection

6 days 6 hours ago
Glia modulate neuronal excitability and seizure sensitivity by maintaining potassium and water homeostasis. A SIK3-regulated gene expression program controls the glial capacity to buffer K^(+) and water in Drosophila, however upstream regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Here we identify an octopaminergic circuit linking neuronal activity to glial ion and water buffering. Under basal conditions, octopamine functions through the inhibitory octopaminergic GPCR OctbR to upregulate glial buffering...
Hailun Li

Region-specific vulnerability in neurodegeneration: lessons from normal ageing

1 week 1 day ago
A number of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), possess a shared characteristic of region-specific neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms which determine why particular regions within the nervous system are selectively vulnerable to neurodegeneration, whilst others remain relatively unaffected throughout disease progression, remain elusive. Here, we review how regional susceptibility...
Virenkumar A Pandya

Tau: Enabler of diverse brain disorders and target of rapidly evolving therapeutic strategies

1 week 2 days ago
Several lines of evidence implicate the protein tau in the pathogenesis of multiple brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, other neurodegenerative conditions, autism, and epilepsy. Tau is abundant in neurons and interacts with microtubules, but its main functions in the brain remain to be defined. These functions may involve the regulation of signaling pathways relevant to diverse biological processes. Informative disease models have revealed a plethora of abnormal tau species and...
Che-Wei Chang

Declining lamin B1 expression mediates age-dependent decreases of hippocampal stem cell activity

1 week 3 days ago
Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neurons throughout life in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. With advancing age, levels of neurogenesis sharply drop, which has been associated with a decline in hippocampal memory function. However, cell-intrinsic mechanisms mediating age-related changes in NSC activity remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the nuclear lamina protein lamin B1 (LB1) is downregulated with age in mouse hippocampal NSCs, whereas protein levels of SUN-domain containing protein 1...
Muhammad Khadeesh Bin Imtiaz

A Non-stop identity complex (NIC) supervises enterocyte identity and protects from premature aging

1 week 3 days ago
A hallmark of aging is loss of differentiated cell identity. Aged Drosophila midgut differentiated enterocytes (ECs) lose their identity, impairing tissue homeostasis. To discover identity regulators, we performed an RNAi screen targeting ubiquitin-related genes in ECs. Seventeen genes were identified, including the deubiquitinase Non-stop (CG4166). Lineage tracing established that acute loss of Non-stop in young ECs phenocopies aged ECs at cellular and tissue levels. Proteomic analysis unveiled...
Neta Erez

Mitochondrial hydrogen sulfide supplementation improves health in the <em>C. elegans</em> Duchenne muscular dystrophy model

1 week 3 days ago
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. The symptoms of DMD share similarities with those of accelerated aging. Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) supplementation has been suggested to modulate the effects of age-related decline in muscle function, and metabolic H(2)S deficiencies have been implicated in affecting muscle mass in conditions such as phenylketonuria. We...
Rebecca A Ellwood

Multimodal single-cell/nucleus RNA sequencing data analysis uncovers molecular networks between disease-associated microglia and astrocytes with implications for drug repurposing in Alzheimer's disease

1 week 3 days ago
Because disease-associated microglia (DAM) and disease-associated astrocytes (DAA) are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we systematically identified molecular networks between DAM and DAA in order to uncover novel therapeutic targets for AD. Specifically, we develop a network-based methodology that leverages single-cell/nucleus RNA sequencing data from both transgenic mouse models and AD patient brains, as well as drug-target network, metabolite-enzyme associations,...
Jielin Xu

A mechanosensitive peri-arteriolar niche for osteogenesis and lymphopoiesis

1 week 3 days ago
Stromal cells in adult bone marrow that express leptin receptor (LEPR) are a critical source of growth factors, including stem cell factor (SCF), for the maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells and early restricted progenitors^(1-6). LEPR^(+) cells are heterogeneous, including skeletal stem cells and osteogenic and adipogenic progenitors^(7-12), although few markers have been available to distinguish these subsets or to compare their functions. Here we show that expression of an osteogenic...
Bo Shen

Sestrin2 and mitochondrial quality control: Potential impact in myogenic differentiation

1 week 4 days ago
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles capable of adapting their network, morphology, and function, playing a role in oxidative phosphorylation and many cellular processes in most cell types. Skeletal muscle is a very plastic tissue, subjected to many morphological changes following diverse stimuli, such as during myogenic differentiation and regenerative myogenesis. For some time now, mitochondria have been reported to be involved in myogenesis by promoting a bioenergetic remodeling and...
Luiz F Piochi

Age-associated mitochondrial complex I deficiency is linked to increased stem cell proliferation rates in the mouse colon

1 week 4 days ago
One of the hallmarks of aging is an accumulation of cells with defects in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Rapidly dividing tissues maintained by stem cells, such as the colonic epithelium, are particularly susceptible to accumulation of OXPHOS defects over time; however, the effects on the stem cells are unknown. We have crossed a mouse model in which intestinal stem cells are labelled with EGFP (Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-creERT2) with a model of...
Craig Stamp

Electroacupuncture ameliorates beta-amyloid pathology and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease via a novel mechanism involving activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB)

1 week 4 days ago
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia in the elderly. Unfortunately, no cure for AD is available to date. Increasing evidence has proved the roles of misfolded protein aggregation due to impairment of the macroautophagy/autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) in the pathogenesis of AD, and thus making TFEB (transcription factor EB), which orchestrates ALP, as a promising target for treating AD. As a complementary therapy, acupuncture or...
Xiaoyan Zheng

Sarcopenia - Molecular mechanisms and open questions.

1 week 4 days ago
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Sarcopenia - Molecular mechanisms and open questions.

Ageing Res Rev. 2021 01;65:101200

Authors: Wiedmer P, Jung T, Castro JP, Pomatto LCD, Sun PY, Davies KJA, Grune T

Abstract
Sarcopenia represents a muscle-wasting syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength occurring during normal aging. Sarcopenia patients are mainly suffering from the loss in muscle strength and are faced with mobility disorders reducing their quality of life and are, therefore, at higher risk for morbidity (falls, bone fracture, metabolic diseases) and mortality. Several molecular mechanisms have been described as causes for sarcopenia that refer to very different levels of muscle physiology. These mechanisms cover e. g. function of hormones (e. g. IGF-1 and Insulin), muscle fiber composition and neuromuscular drive, myo-satellite cell potential to differentiate and proliferate, inflammatory pathways as well as intracellular mechanisms in the processes of proteostasis and mitochondrial function. In this review, we describe sarcopenia as a muscle-wasting syndrome distinct from other atrophic diseases and summarize the current view on molecular causes of sarcopenia development as well as open questions provoking further research efforts for establishing efficient lifestyle and therapeutic interventions.

PMID: 33130247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Emerging potential of cannabidiol in reversing proteinopathies.

1 week 4 days ago
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Emerging potential of cannabidiol in reversing proteinopathies.

Ageing Res Rev. 2021 01;65:101209

Authors: Dash R, Ali MC, Jahan I, Munni YA, Mitra S, Hannan MA, Timalsina B, Oktaviani DF, Choi HJ, Moon IS

Abstract
The aberrant accumulation of disease-specific protein aggregates accompanying cognitive decline is a pathological hallmark of age-associated neurological disorders, also termed as proteinopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Along with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, disruption in protein homeostasis (proteostasis), a network that constitutes protein surveillance system, plays a pivotal role in the pathobiology of these dementia disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, is known for its pleiotropic neuropharmacological effects on the central nervous system, including the ability to abate oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and protein misfolding. Over the past years, compelling evidence has documented disease-modifying role of CBD in various preclinical and clinical models of neurological disorders, suggesting the potential therapeutic implications of CBD in these disorders. Because of its putative role in the proteostasis network in particular, CBD could be a potent modulator for reversing not only age-associated neurodegeneration but also other protein misfolding disorders. However, the current understanding is insufficient to underpin this proposition. In this review, we discuss the potentiality of CBD as a pharmacological modulator of the proteostasis network, highlighting its neuroprotective and aggregates clearing roles in the neurodegenerative disorders. We anticipate that the current effort will advance our knowledge on the implication of CBD in proteostasis network, opening up a new therapeutic window for aging proteinopathies.

PMID: 33181336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Aging, Lifespan & Longevity
(Rejuvenation[TitleAbstract] OR Rejuvenate[TitleAbstract] OR Senescent[TitleAbstract] OR Senescence[TitleAbstract] OR Aging[TitleAbstract] OR Ageing[TitleAbstract] OR Lifespan[TitleAbstract] O…: Latest results from PubMed
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