Aging, Lifespan & Longevity

The impact of aging in dementia: It is time to refocus attention on the main risk factor of dementia.

1 week 5 days ago
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The impact of aging in dementia: It is time to refocus attention on the main risk factor of dementia.

Ageing Res Rev. 2021 01;65:101210

Authors: Mecocci P, Boccardi V

Abstract
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common form of dementia among old age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying etiopathogenetic mechanisms remain unsolved, and no cure is available. The amyloid hypothesis has been recently questioned due to the failure of amyloid-centered treatments. The fact that cognitively normal old age subjects have substantial amyloid deposition in the brain comparable to the levels observed in AD patients suggests that amyloid accumulation may enter into the normal process of aging and what really triggers neuronal death and clinical manifestation is the loss of function due to an energetic failure. With this viewpoint article, we aim to challenge the traditional view of amyloid as the leading cause of AD. Conversely, we propose the core feature of aging, that is the progressive brain energy decline, as the main risk factor for dementia in older persons. Thus, a bioenergetic deficit secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction may lead to progressive neuronal death and clinical expression of dementia. The optimization of brain energetics should become a key component in future strategies for preventing and treating dementia.

PMID: 33186671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Endothelial cell senescence: A machine learning-based meta-analysis of transcriptomic studies.

1 week 5 days ago
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Endothelial cell senescence: A machine learning-based meta-analysis of transcriptomic studies.

Ageing Res Rev. 2021 01;65:101213

Authors: Park HS, Kim SY

Abstract
Numerous systemic vascular dysfunction that leads to age-related diseases is highly associated with endothelial cell (EC) senescence; thus, identifying consensus features of EC senescence is crucial in understanding the mechanisms and identifying potential therapeutic targets. Here, by utilizing a total of 8 screened studies from different origins of ECs, we have successfully obtained common features in both gene and pathway level via sophisticated machine learning algorithms. A total of 400 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were newly discovered with meta-analysis when compared to the usage of individual studies. The generated parsimonious model established 36 genes and 57 pathways features with non-zero coefficient, suggesting remarkable association of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and serine biosynthesis pathway with endothelial cellular senescence. For the cross-validation process to measure model performance of 36 deduced features, leave-one-study-out cross-validation (LOSOCV) was employed, resulting in an overall area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of 0.983 (95 % CI, 0.952, 1.000) showing excellent discriminative performance. Moreover, pathway-level analysis was performed by Pathifier algorithm, obtaining a total of 698 pathway deregulation scores from the 10,416 merged genes. In this process, high dimensional data was eventually narrowed down to 57 core pathways with AUROC value of 0.982 (95 % CI, 0.945, 1.000). The robust model with high performance underscores the merit of utilizing sophisticated meta-analysis in finding consensus features of endothelial cell senescence, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets and advanced understanding of vascular dysfunction pathogenesis with further elucidation.

PMID: 33189866 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Re-emphasizing early Alzheimer's disease pathology starting in select entorhinal neurons, with a special focus on mitophagy

1 week 5 days ago
The entorhinal-hippocampal system contains distinct networks subserving declarative memory. This system is selectively vulnerable to changes of ageing and pathological processes. The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a pivotal component of this memory system since it serves as the interface between the neocortex and the hippocampus. EC is heavily affected by the proteinopathies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These appear in a stereotypical spatiotemporal manner and include increased levels of...
Asgeir Kobro-Flatmoen

COVID-19 mortality as a fingerprint of biological age

1 week 5 days ago
Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global emergency able to overwhelm the healthcare capacities worldwide and to affect the older generation especially. When addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical manifestations of COVID-19, it becomes evident that the disease targets pathways and domains affected by the main aging- and frailty-related pathophysiological changes. A closer analysis of the existing data supports a possible role of biological age rather than chronological...
M Cristina Polidori

TIA1 potentiates tau phase separation and promotes generation of toxic oligomeric tau

1 week 5 days ago
Tau protein plays an important role in the biology of stress granules and in the stress response of neurons, but the nature of these biochemical interactions is not known. Here we show that the interaction of tau with RNA and the RNA binding protein TIA1 is sufficient to drive phase separation of tau at physiological concentrations, without the requirement for artificial crowding agents such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). We further show that phase separation of tau in the presence of RNA and...
Peter E A Ash

Self-assembly of multi-component mitochondrial nucleoids via phase separation

1 week 5 days ago
Mitochondria contain an autonomous and spatially segregated genome. The organizational unit of their genome is the nucleoid, which consists of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and associated architectural proteins. Here, we show that phase separation is the primary physical mechanism for assembly and size control of the mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid). The major mtDNA-binding protein TFAM spontaneously phase separates in vitro via weak, multivalent interactions into droplets with slow internal...
Marina Feric

Late-onset hypogonadism: Clinical evidence, biological aspects and evolutionary considerations

2 weeks ago
The growing life expectancy in modern societies has raised scientific interest in identifying medical interventions to alleviate age-associated pathologies such as vascular calcification, cognitive decline, sarcopenia, osteoporosis and sexual dysfunction. Although no such single treatment has thus far been established in humans, some clinicians and patients have set their hopes on testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) as a potential "fountain of youth" for aging men. While TRT has proven...
Nikolai Jaschke

Exploring the multifunctional role of melatonin in regulating autophagy and sleep to mitigate Alzheimer's disease neuropathology

2 weeks ago
Melatonin (MLT) is a neurohormone that is regulated by the circadian clock and plays multifunctional roles in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is the most common form of dementia and is associated with the degradation of axons and synapses resulting in memory loss and cognitive impairment. Despite extensive research, there is still no effective cure or specific treatment to prevent the progression of AD. The pathogenesis of AD involves atrophic...
Md Farhad Hossain

The decreased exclusion of nuclear eccDNA: From molecular and subcellular levels to human aging and age-related diseases

2 weeks ago
Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) accumulates within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells during physiological aging and in age-related diseases (ARDs) and the accumulation could be caused by the declined exclusion of nuclear eccDNA in these states. This review focuses on the formation of eccDNA and the roles of some main factors, such as nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR), and nuclear actin, in eccDNA exclusion. eccDNAs are mostly formed from non-coding DNA during DNA...
Guo-Hua Qiu

The emerging role of the sympathetic nervous system in skeletal muscle motor innervation and sarcopenia

2 weeks ago
Examining neural etiologic factors'role in the decline of neuromuscular function with aging is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sarcopenia, the age-dependent decline in muscle mass, force and power. Innervation of the skeletal muscle by both motor and sympathetic axons has been established, igniting interest in determining how the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) affect skeletal muscle composition and function throughout the lifetime. Selective expression of the heart...
Osvaldo Delbono

The role of extracellular DNA in COVID-19: Clues from inflamm-aging.

2 weeks 1 day ago
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The role of extracellular DNA in COVID-19: Clues from inflamm-aging.

Ageing Res Rev. 2021 03;66:101234

Authors: Storci G, Bonifazi F, Garagnani P, Olivieri F, Bonafè M

Abstract
Epidemiological data convey severe prognosis and high mortality rate for COVID-19 in elderly men affected by age-related diseases. These subjects develop local and systemic hyper-inflammation, which are associated with thrombotic complications and multi-organ failure. Therefore, understanding SARS-CoV-2 induced hyper-inflammation in elderly men is a pressing need. Here we focus on the role of extracellular DNA, mainly mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and telomeric DNA (telDNA) in the modulation of systemic inflammation in these subjects. In particular, extracellular mtDNA is regarded as a powerful trigger of the inflammatory response. On the contrary, extracellular telDNA pool is estimated to be capable of inhibiting a variety of inflammatory pathways. In turn, we underpin that telDNA reservoir is progressively depleted during aging, and that it is scarcer in men than in women. We propose that an increase in extracellular mtDNA, concomitant with the reduction of the anti-inflammatory telDNA reservoir may explain hyper-inflammation in elderly male affected by COVID-19. This scenario is reminiscent of inflamm-aging, the portmanteau word that depicts how aging and aging related diseases are intimately linked to inflammation.

PMID: 33321254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Robust inference of kinase activity using functional networks

2 weeks 1 day ago
Mass spectrometry enables high-throughput screening of phosphoproteins across a broad range of biological contexts. When complemented by computational algorithms, phospho-proteomic data allows the inference of kinase activity, facilitating the identification of dysregulated kinases in various diseases including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. To enhance the reliability of kinase activity inference, we present a network-based framework, RoKAI, that integrates various sources...
Serhan Yılmaz

Mutation of daf-2 extends lifespan via tissue-specific effectors that suppress distinct life-limiting pathologies

2 weeks 1 day ago
In aging Caenorhabditis elegans, as in higher organisms, there is more than one cause of death. C. elegans exhibit early death with a swollen, infected pharynx (P death), and later death with pharyngeal atrophy (p death). Interventions that alter lifespan can differentially affect frequency and timing of each type of death, generating complex survival curve shapes. Here, we use mortality deconvolution analysis to investigate how reduction of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), which increases...
Yuan Zhao

The functions and regulation of Otubains in protein homeostasis and diseases

2 weeks 1 day ago
OTU domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde-binding proteins Otubain1 (OTUB1) and Otubain2 (OTUB2) were initially identified as OTU deubiquitinases (DUBs). Recently, Otubains have emerged as essential regulators of diverse physiological processes, such as immune signaling and DNA damage response. Dysregulation of those processes is likely to increase the risk in multiple aspects of aging-related diseases, including cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, chronic kidney diseases, bone dysplasia and...
Qiong Zhu

XPO7 is a tumor suppressor regulating p21(CIP1)-dependent senescence

2 weeks 2 days ago
Senescence is a key barrier to neoplastic transformation. To identify senescence regulators relevant to cancer, we screened a genome-wide shRNA library. Here, we describe exportin 7 (XPO7) as a novel regulator of senescence and validate its function in telomere-induced, replicative, and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). XPO7 is a bidirectional transporter that regulates the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of a broad range of substrates. Depletion of XPO7 results in reduced levels of TCF3 and an...
Andrew J Innes

Associations of Omega-3 fatty acids with brain morphology and volume in cognitively healthy older adults: A narrative review

2 weeks 2 days ago
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodevelopment is complete by the 4th decade of life at which point brain atrophy ensues with variable rate and regionality into old age. Literally all regions of the brain experience atrophy with older age, however the pattern and rate of atrophy can dictate the behavioral consequences (i.e., cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease). Substantial research has aimed to discover the reasons why some people experience greater morphologic changes that produce undesirable...
Tony Macaron

SARS CoV2 infection _The longevity study perspectives

2 weeks 2 days ago
Like other infectious diseases, COVID-19 shows a clinical outcome enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal. In Italy, like in other countries, old male individuals, with one or more comorbidity, are the most susceptible group, and show, consequently, the highest mortality, and morbidity, including lethal respiratory distress syndrome, as the most common complication. In addition, another extraordinary peculiarity, that is a surprising resistance to COVID-19, characterizes some...
Domenico Lio
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Aging, Lifespan & Longevity
(Rejuvenation[TitleAbstract] OR Rejuvenate[TitleAbstract] OR Senescent[TitleAbstract] OR Senescence[TitleAbstract] OR Aging[TitleAbstract] OR Ageing[TitleAbstract] OR Lifespan[TitleAbstract] O…: Latest results from PubMed
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