Aging & Longevity

Deep brain stimulation of thalamic nucleus reuniens promotes neuronal and cognitive resilience in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model

4 weeks 1 day ago
The mechanisms that confer cognitive resilience to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are not fully understood. Here, we describe a neural circuit mechanism underlying this resilience in a familial AD mouse model. In the prodromal disease stage, interictal epileptiform spikes (IESs) emerge during anesthesia in the CA1 and mPFC regions, leading to working memory disruptions. These IESs are driven by inputs from the thalamic nucleus reuniens (nRE). Indeed, tonic deep brain stimulation of the nRE (tDBS-nRE)...
Shiri Shoob

scDiffCom: a tool for differential analysis of cell-cell interactions provides a mouse atlas of aging changes in intercellular communication

4 weeks 1 day ago
Dysregulation of intercellular communication is a hallmark of aging. To better quantify and explore changes in intercellular communication, we present scDiffCom and scAgeCom. scDiffCom is an R package, relying on approximately 5,000 curated ligand-receptor interactions, that performs differential intercellular communication analysis between two conditions from single-cell transcriptomics data. Built upon scDiffCom, scAgeCom is an atlas of age-related cell-cell communication changes covering 23...
Cyril Lagger

Skeletal muscle DNA methylation: Effects of exercise and HIV

4 weeks 1 day ago
Aging, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and antiretroviral therapy modify the epigenetic profile and function of cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle (SkM). In some cells, accelerated epigenetic aging begins very soon after the initial HIV infection, potentially setting the stage for the early onset of frailty. Exercise imparts epigenetic modifications in SkM that may underpin some health benefits, including delayed frailty, in people living with HIV (PWH). In this first...
Catherine M Jankowski

Holly Ingraham

1 month ago
Holly Ingraham examines biological sex differences in the brain and body across the lifespan from endocrine, metabolic, and neuroscientific perspectives. She highlights the significance of including females in experiments, the benefits of reading classic studies, and the importance of posing great questions.
Holly A Ingraham

Impaired gut microbiota-mediated short-chain fatty acid production precedes morbidity and mortality in people with HIV

1 month ago
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically lengthened lifespan among people with HIV (PWH), but this population experiences heightened rates of inflammation-related comorbidities. HIV-associated inflammation is linked with an altered microbiome; whether such alterations precede inflammation-related comorbidities or occur as their consequence remains unknown. We find that ART-treated PWH exhibit depletion of gut-resident bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-crucial microbial...
Irini Sereti

Recent Advancement in Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Clinical Trials

1 month ago
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia, characterized by the presence of plaques of amyloid beta and Tau proteins. There is currently no permanent cure for AD; the only medications approved by the FDA for mild to moderate AD are cholinesterase inhibitors, NMDA receptor antagonists, and immunotherapies against core pathophysiology, that provide temporary relief only. Researchers worldwide have made significant attempts to find new targets and develop innovative...
Tanzeel Khan

Efficacy and safety in mice of repeated, lifelong administration of an ANGPTL3 vaccine

1 month ago
Previously, we reported that an ANGPTL3 vaccine is a hopeful therapeutic option against dyslipidemia. In our current study, we assess durability and booster effects of that vaccine over a period representing a mouse's lifespan. The vaccine remained effective for over one year, and booster vaccination maintained suppression of circulating triglyceride levels thereafter without major adverse effects on lungs, kidneys, or liver, suggesting vaccine efficacy and safety.
Hirotaka Fukami

Targeted degradation of SNCA/α-synuclein aggregates in neurodegeneration using the AUTOTAC chemical platform

1 month ago
Parkinson disease (PD) characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss is caused by aggregation of misfolded SNCA/α-synuclein. We recently developed autophagy-targeting chimera (AUTOTAC), a targeted protein degradation (TPD) technology based on the macroautophagy/autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP). In this study, we employed AUTOTAC to synthesize ATC161, a chimeric compound that adopts Anle138b as target-binding ligand (TBL) for SNCA aggregates. The autophagy-targeting ligand (ATL) of ATC161 was...
Jihoon Lee

ATG5 (autophagy related 5) in microglia controls hippocampal neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease

1 month ago
Macroautophagy/autophagy is the intracellular degradation process of cytoplasmic content and damaged organelles. Autophagy is strongly associated with the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microglia are brain-resident macrophages, and recent studies indicate that autophagy in microglia protects neurons from neurodegeneration. Postnatal neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons from adult neural stem cells (NSCs), is impaired in AD patients as well as in AD animal models. However, the...
Xin Tang

Associations of olfactory function with brain structural and functional outcomes. A systematic review

1 month ago
In aging, olfactory deficits have been associated with lower cognition and motor function. Olfactory dysfunction is also one of the earliest features of neurodegenerative disease. A comprehensive review of the neural correlates of olfactive function may reveal mechanisms underlying the associations among olfaction, cognition, motor function, and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we summarize existing knowledge on the relationship between brain structural and functional measures and olfaction in...
Adam R Bothwell

Oligodendrocytes Play a Critical Role in White Matter Damage of Vascular Dementia

1 month ago
With the deepening of population aging, the treatment of cognitive impairment and dementia is facing increasing challenges. Vascular dementia (VaD) is a cognitive dysfunction caused by brain blood flow damage and one of the most common causes of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. White matter damage in patients with chronic ischemic dementia often occurs before cognitive impairment, and its pathological changes include leukoaraiosis, myelin destruction and oligodendrocyte death. The...
Hexin Zhang

Mega-scale movie-fields in the mouse visuo-hippocampal network

1 month ago
Natural visual experience involves a continuous series of related images while the subject is immobile. How does the cortico-hippocampal circuit process a visual episode? The hippocampus is crucial for episodic memory, but most rodent single unit studies require spatial exploration or active engagement. Hence, we investigated neural responses to a silent movie (Allen Brain Observatory) in head-fixed mice without any task or locomotion demands, or rewards. Surprisingly, a third (33%, 3379/10263)...
Chinmay Purandare

UNC-49 is a redox-sensitive GABA<sub>A</sub> receptor that regulates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response cell nonautonomously

1 month ago
The γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated (GABAergic) system participates in many aspects of organismal physiology and disease, including proteostasis, neuronal dysfunction, and life-span extension. Many of these phenotypes are also regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the redox mechanisms linking the GABAergic system to these phenotypes are not well defined. Here, we report that GABAergic redox signaling cell nonautonomously activates many stress response pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans...
Franziska Pohl

Localized APP expression results in progressive network dysfunction by disorganizing spike timing

1 month ago
Progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease could either be caused by a spreading molecular pathology or by an initially focal pathology that causes aberrant neuronal activity in a larger network. To distinguish between these possibilities, we generated a mouse model with expression of mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) in only hippocampal CA3 cells. We found that performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task was impaired in young adult and aged mutant mice. In both age...
Silvia Viana da Silva

Absolute lung cancer risk increases among individuals with &gt;15 quit-years: Analyses to inform the update of the American Cancer Society lung cancer screening guidelines

1 month ago
CONCLUSIONS: Because of aging, absolute lung cancer risk increases beyond 15 quit-years, which does not support exemption from screening or curtailing screening once it has been initiated. Compared with relaxing the USPSTF quit-year criterion, augmentation using LYFS-CT could prevent most of the deaths at substantially superior efficiency, while also preventing deaths among individuals who currently smoke with low intensity or long duration.
Rebecca Landy

CHIT1-positive microglia drive motor neuron aging in the primate spinal cord

1 month ago
Aging is a critical factor in spinal cord-associated disorders¹, yet aging-specific mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we combined single-nucleus RNA sequencing with behavioral and neurophysiological analysis in non-human primates (NHPs). We identified motor neuron senescence and neuroinflammation with microglial hyperactivation as intertwined hallmarks of spinal cord aging. As an underlying mechanism, we identified a previously...
Shuhui Sun
5 hours 17 minutes ago
Aging and Longevity: Latest results from PubMed
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