Aging & Longevity

Metabolic phenotyping reveals an emerging role of ammonia abnormality in Alzheimer's disease

1 month 1 week ago
The metabolic implications in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain poorly understood. Here, we conducted a metabolomics study on a moderately aging Chinese Han cohort (n = 1397; mean age 66 years). Conjugated bile acids, branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs), and glutamate-related features exhibited strong correlations with cognitive impairment, clinical stage, and brain amyloid-β deposition (n = 421). These features demonstrated synergistic performances across clinical stages and subpopulations and...
Tianlu Chen

Uncharacterized yeast gene YBR238C, an effector of TORC1 signaling in a mitochondrial feedback loop, accelerates cellular aging via HAP4- and RMD9-dependent mechanisms

1 month 1 week ago
Uncovering the regulators of cellular aging will unravel the complexity of aging biology and identify potential therapeutic interventions to delay the onset and progress of chronic, aging-related diseases. In this work, we systematically compared genesets involved in regulating the lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a powerful model organism to study the cellular aging of humans) and those with expression changes under rapamycin treatment. Among the functionally uncharacterized genes in the...
Mohammad Alfatah

Targeting pathological cells with senolytic drugs reduces seizures in neurodevelopmental mTOR-related epilepsy

1 month 1 week ago
Cortical malformations such as focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) are associated with pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy that necessitates neurosurgery. FCDII results from somatic mosaicism due to post-zygotic mutations in genes of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, which produce a subset of dysmorphic cells clustered within healthy brain tissue. Here we show a correlation between epileptiform activity in acute cortical slices obtained from human surgical FCDII brain tissues and the density of...
Théo Ribierre

Energetic cost of biosynthesis is a missing link between growth and longevity in mammals

1 month 1 week ago
The comparative studies of aging have established a negative correlation between Gompertz postnatal growth constant and maximum lifespan across mammalian species, but the underlying physiological mechanism remains unclear. This study shows that the Gompertz growth constant can be decomposed into two energetic components, mass-specific metabolic rate and the energetic cost of biosynthesis, and that after controlling the former as a confounder, the negative correlation between growth constant and...
Chen Hou

Nonlethal deleterious mutation-induced stress accelerates bacterial aging

1 month 1 week ago
Random mutagenesis, including when it leads to loss of gene function, is a key mechanism enabling microorganisms' long-term adaptation to new environments. However, loss-of-function mutations are often deleterious, triggering, in turn, cellular stress and complex homeostatic stress responses, called "allostasis," to promote cell survival. Here, we characterize the differential impacts of 65 nonlethal, deleterious single-gene deletions on Escherichia coli growth in three different growth...
Maryam Kohram

Clinical validation of C(12)FDG as a marker associated with senescence and osteoarthritic phenotypes

1 month 1 week ago
Chronic conditions associated with aging have proven difficult to prevent or treat. Senescence is a cell fate defined by loss of proliferative capacity and the development of a pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype comprised of cytokines/chemokines, proteases, and other factors that promotes age-related diseases. Specifically, an increase in senescent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), including T cells, is associated with conditions like frailty, rheumatoid...
William S Hambright

Role of the gut-muscle axis in mitochondrial function of ageing muscle under different exercise modes

1 month 1 week ago
The fundamental role of the gut microbiota through the gut-muscle axis in skeletal muscle ageing is increasingly recognised. Metabolites derived from the intestinal microbiota are essential in maintaining skeletal muscle function and metabolism. The energy produced by mitochondria and moderate levels of reactive oxygen species can contribute to this process. Metabolites can effectively target the mitochondria, slowing the progression of muscle ageing and potentially representing a marker of...
Xiaoting Xie

EPB41L4A-AS1 is required to maintain basal autophagy to modulates Aβ clearance

1 month 1 week ago
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. Aβ is generated from the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by β and γ-secretases and cleared by neuroglial cells mediated autophagy. The imbalance of the intracellular Aβ generation and clearance is the causative factor for AD pathogenesis. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous study reported that EPB41L4A-AS1 is an...
Ziqiang Wang

Effects of emissions caps on the costs and feasibility of low-carbon hydrogen in the European ammonia industry

1 month 1 week ago
The European ammonia industry emits 36 million tons of carbon dioxide annually, primarily from steam methane reforming (SMR) hydrogen production. These emissions can be mitigated by producing hydrogen via water electrolysis using dedicated renewables with grid backup. This study investigates the impact of decarbonization targets for hydrogen synthesis on the economic viability and technical feasibility of retrofitting existing European ammonia plants for on-site, semi-islanded electrolytic...
Stefano Mingolla

Small-molecule-induced epigenetic rejuvenation promotes SREBP condensation and overcomes barriers to CNS myelin regeneration

1 month 1 week ago
Remyelination failure in diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) was thought to involve suppressed maturation of oligodendrocyte precursors; however, oligodendrocytes are present in MS lesions yet lack myelin production. We found that oligodendrocytes in the lesions are epigenetically silenced. Developing a transgenic reporter labeling differentiated oligodendrocytes for phenotypic screening, we identified a small-molecule epigenetic-silencing-inhibitor (ESI1) that enhances myelin production and...
Xuezhao Liu

The epidermal circadian clock integrates and subverts brain signals to guarantee skin homeostasis

1 month 1 week ago
In mammals, the circadian clock network drives daily rhythms of tissue-specific homeostasis. To dissect daily inter-tissue communication, we constructed a mouse minimal clock network comprising only two nodes: the peripheral epidermal clock and the central brain clock. By transcriptomic and functional characterization of this isolated connection, we identified a gatekeeping function of the peripheral tissue clock with respect to systemic inputs. The epidermal clock concurrently integrates and...
Thomas Mortimer

Neuron-specific chromatin disruption at CpG islands and aging-related regions in Kabuki syndrome mice

1 month 1 week ago
Many Mendelian developmental disorders caused by coding variants in epigenetic regulators have now been discovered. Epigenetic regulators are broadly expressed, and each of these disorders typically exhibits phenotypic manifestations from many different organ systems. An open question is whether the chromatin disruption - the root of the pathogenesis - is similar in the different disease-relevant cell types. This is possible in principle, since all these cell types are subject to effects from...
Leandros Boukas

Metabolic and neurobehavioral disturbances induced by purine recycling deficiency in <em>Drosophila</em>

1 month 1 week ago
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) are two structurally related enzymes involved in purine recycling in humans. Inherited mutations that suppress HGPRT activity are associated with Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND), a rare X-linked metabolic and neurological disorder in children, characterized by hyperuricemia, dystonia, and compulsive self-injury. To date, no treatment is available for these neurological defects and no animal model...
Céline Petitgas

Early-life exposure to tobacco, genetic susceptibility, and accelerated biological aging in adulthood

1 month 1 week ago
Early-life tobacco exposure serves as a non-negligible risk factor for aging-related diseases. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we explored the associations of early-life tobacco exposure with accelerated biological aging and further assessed the joint effects of tobacco exposure and genetic susceptibility. Compared with those without in utero exposure, participants with in utero tobacco exposure had an increase in Klemera-Doubal biological age (KDM-BA) and PhenoAge acceleration of 0.26...
Feipeng Cui

Brain-muscle communication prevents muscle aging by maintaining daily physiology

1 month 1 week ago
A molecular clock network is crucial for daily physiology and maintaining organismal health. We examined the interactions and importance of intratissue clock networks in muscle tissue maintenance. In arrhythmic mice showing premature aging, we created a basic clock module involving a central and a peripheral (muscle) clock. Reconstituting the brain-muscle clock network is sufficient to preserve fundamental daily homeostatic functions and prevent premature muscle aging. However, achieving whole...
Arun Kumar

Increased intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to age-related cognitive impairment

1 month 1 week ago
Cognitive impairment in the elderly is associated with alterations in bile acid (BA) metabolism. In this study, we observe elevated levels of serum conjugated primary bile acids (CPBAs) and ammonia in elderly individuals, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and aging rodents, with a more pronounced change in females. These changes are correlated with increased expression of the ileal apical sodium-bile acid transporter (ASBT), hippocampal synapse loss, and elevated brain CPBA and...
Zhenxing Ren

Septin 7 interacts with Numb to preserve sarcomere structural organization and muscle contractile function

1 month 1 week ago
Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which aging-related reductions of the levels of Numb in skeletal muscle fibers contribute to loss of muscle strength and power, two critical features of sarcopenia. Numb is an adaptor protein best known for its critical roles in development, including asymmetric cell division, cell-type specification, and termination of intracellular signaling. Numb expression is reduced in old humans and mice. We previously showed that, in mouse skeletal muscle fibers,...
Rita De Gasperi

Alterations of human CSF and serum-based mitophagy biomarkers in the continuum of Alzheimer disease

1 month 1 week ago
Defective mitophagy is consistently found in postmortem brain and iPSC-derived neurons from Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. However, there is a lack of extensive examination of mitophagy status in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the clinical potential of mitophagy biomarkers has not been tested. We quantified biomarkers of mitophagy/autophagy and lysosomal degradation (PINK1, BNIP3L and TFEB) in CSF and serum from 246 individuals, covering mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD, n...
Kateřina Veverová
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