Aging & Longevity

The SATB1-MIR22-GBA axis mediates glucocerebroside accumulation inducing a cellular senescence-like phenotype in dopaminergic neurons

2 months 1 week ago
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which is associated with neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis. The underlying cause of PD and the concurrent neuroinflammation are not well understood. In this study, we utilize human and murine neuronal lines, stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and mice to demonstrate that three previously identified genetic risk factors for PD, namely SATB1, MIR22HG, and GBA,...
Taylor Russo

Xrp1 governs the stress response program to spliceosome dysfunction

2 months 1 week ago
Co-transcriptional processing of nascent pre-mRNAs by the spliceosome is vital to regulating gene expression and maintaining genome integrity. Here, we show that the deficiency of functional U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) in Drosophila imaginal cells causes extensive transcriptome remodeling and accumulation of highly mutagenic R-loops, triggering a robust stress response and cell cycle arrest. Despite compromised proliferative capacity, the U5 snRNP-deficient cells...
Dimitrije Stanković

APOE loss-of-function variants: Compatible with longevity and associated with resistance to Alzheimer's disease pathology

2 months 1 week ago
The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Knockdown of ε4 may provide a therapeutic strategy for AD, but the effect of APOE loss of function (LoF) on AD pathogenesis is unknown. We searched for APOE LoF variants in a large cohort of controls and patients with AD and identified seven heterozygote carriers of APOE LoF variants. Five carriers were controls (aged 71-90 years), one carrier was affected by progressive...
Augustine Chemparathy

An atlas of cells in the human tonsil

2 months 1 week ago
Palatine tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) representing the first line of immunological defense against inhaled or ingested pathogens. We generated an atlas of the human tonsil composed of >556,000 cells profiled across five different data modalities, including single-cell transcriptome, epigenome, proteome, and immune repertoire sequencing, as well as spatial transcriptomics. This census identified 121 cell types and states, defined developmental trajectories, and enabled an...
Ramon Massoni-Badosa

Tissue-specific profiling of age-dependent miRNAomic changes in Caenorhabditis elegans

2 months 1 week ago
Ageing exhibits common and distinct features in various tissues, making it critical to decipher the tissue-specific ageing mechanisms. MiRNAs are essential regulators in ageing and are recently highlighted as a class of intercellular messengers. However, little is known about the tissue-specific transcriptomic changes of miRNAs during ageing. C. elegans is a well-established model organism in ageing research. Here, we profile the age-dependent miRNAomic changes in five isolated worm tissues....
Xueqing Wang

Brain asymmetries from mid- to late life and hemispheric brain age

2 months 1 week ago
The human brain demonstrates structural and functional asymmetries which have implications for ageing and mental and neurological disease development. We used a set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics derived from structural and diffusion MRI data in N=48,040 UK Biobank participants to evaluate age-related differences in brain asymmetry. Most regional grey and white matter metrics presented asymmetry, which were higher later in life. Informed by these results, we conducted hemispheric...
Max Korbmacher

The use of a systems approach to increase NAD<sup>+</sup> in human participants

2 months 1 week ago
Reversal or mitigation against an age-related decline in NAD^(+) has likely benefits, and this premise has driven academic and commercial endeavour to develop dietary supplements that achieve this outcome. We used a systems-based approach to improve on current supplements by targeting multiple points in the NAD^(+) salvage pathway. In a double-blind, randomised, crossover trial, the supplement - Nuchido TIME+® (NT) - increased NAD^(+) concentration in whole blood. This was associated with an...
John D Henderson

Human myofiber-enriched aging-induced lncRNA FRAIL1 promotes loss of skeletal muscle function

2 months 1 week ago
The loss of skeletal muscle mass during aging is a significant health concern linked to adverse outcomes in older individuals. Understanding the molecular basis of age-related muscle loss is crucial for developing strategies to combat this debilitating condition. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a largely uncharacterized class of biomolecules that have been implicated in cellular homeostasis and dysfunction across a many tissues and cell types. To identify lncRNAs that might contribute to...
Matthew J Miller

Effect of aging on the human myometrium at single-cell resolution

2 months 2 weeks ago
Age-associated myometrial dysfunction can prompt complications during pregnancy and labor, which is one of the factors contributing to the 7.8-fold increase in maternal mortality in women over 40. Using single-cell/single-nucleus RNA sequencing and spatial transcriptomics, we have constructed a cellular atlas of the aging myometrium from 186,120 cells across twenty perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We identify 23 myometrial cell subpopulations, including contractile and venous capillary...
Paula Punzon-Jimenez

Impact of micronutrients and nutraceuticals on cognitive function and performance in Alzheimer's disease

2 months 2 weeks ago
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major global health problem today and is the most common form of dementia. AD is characterized by the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary clusters, leading to decreased brain acetylcholine levels in the brain. Another mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of AD is the abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein that accumulates at the level of neurofibrillary aggregates, and the areas most affected by this pathological process are usually the...
Lorenza Guarnieri

Designing a circular carbon and plastics economy for a sustainable future

2 months 2 weeks ago
The linear production and consumption of plastics today is unsustainable. It creates large amounts of unnecessary and mismanaged waste, pollution and carbon dioxide emissions, undermining global climate targets and the Sustainable Development Goals. This Perspective provides an integrated technological, economic and legal view on how to deliver a circular carbon and plastics economy that minimizes carbon dioxide emissions. Different pathways that maximize recirculation of carbon (dioxide)...
Fernando Vidal

Flexible silicon solar cells with high power-to-weight ratios

2 months 2 weeks ago
Silicon solar cells are a mainstay of commercialized photovoltaics, and further improving the power conversion efficiency of large-area and flexible cells remains an important research objective^(1,2). Here we report a combined approach to improving the power conversion efficiency of silicon heterojunction solar cells, while at the same time rendering them flexible. We use low-damage continuous-plasma chemical vapour deposition to prevent epitaxy, self-restoring nanocrystalline sowing and...
Yang Li

Mask-inspired moisture-transmitting and durable thermochromic perovskite smart windows

2 months 2 weeks ago
Thermochromic perovskite smart windows (TPWs) are a cutting-edge energy-efficient window technology. However, like most perovskite-based devices, humidity-related degradation limits their widespread application. Herein, inspired by the structure of medical masks, a unique triple-layer thermochromic perovskite window (MTPW) that enable sufficient water vapor transmission to trigger the thermochromism but effectively repel detrimental water and moisture to extend its lifespan is developed. The...
Sai Liu

Implications of metabolism on multi-systems healthy aging across the lifespan

2 months 2 weeks ago
Aging is increasingly thought to involve dysregulation of metabolism in multiple organ systems that culminate in decreased functional capacity and morbidity. Here, we seek to understand complex interactions among metabolism, aging, and systems-wide phenotypes across the lifespan. Among 2469 adults (mean age 74.7 years; 38% Black) in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study we identified metabolic cross-sectionally correlates across 20 multi-dimensional aging-related phenotypes spanning seven...
Shanshan Yao

Vitamin D(3) inhibits p38 MAPK and senescence-associated inflammatory mediator secretion by senescent fibroblasts that impacts immune responses during ageing

2 months 2 weeks ago
Vitamin D(3) replacement in older insufficient adults significantly improves their antigen-specific varicella zoster virus (VZV) cutaneous immunity. However, the mechanisms involved in this enhancement of cutaneous immunity are not known. Here, we show for the first time that vitamin D(3) blocks the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) production by senescent fibroblasts by partially inhibiting the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis of skin biopsies from older...
Souraya Sayegh

Osteoclasts and osteoarthritis: Novel intervention targets and therapeutic potentials during aging

2 months 2 weeks ago
Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic degenerative joint disease, is highly prevalent among the aging population, and often leads to joint pain, disability, and a diminished quality of life. Although considerable research has been conducted, the precise molecular mechanisms propelling OA pathogenesis continue to be elusive, thereby impeding the development of effective therapeutics. Notably, recent studies have revealed subchondral bone lesions precede cartilage degeneration in the early stage of OA....
Haojue Wang

H2A.Z is involved in premature aging and DSB repair initiation in muscle fibers

2 months 2 weeks ago
Histone variants are key epigenetic players, but their functional and physiological roles remain poorly understood. Here, we show that depletion of the histone variant H2A.Z in mouse skeletal muscle causes oxidative stress, oxidation of proteins, accumulation of DNA damages, and both neuromuscular junction and mitochondria lesions that consequently lead to premature muscle aging and reduced life span. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved shows that H2A.Z is required to initiate DNA...
Edwige Belotti
4 hours 36 minutes ago
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